- Hydrogen peroxide
Method of detection
- Take 5 ml milk in a test tube. Add 3 drops of Paraphenylene Diamine and shake well. Change in colour of the milk to blue confirms that the milk is adulterated with Hydrogen peroxide.
- To 10ml of milk sample in a test tube add 10-15 drops of vanadium pentoxide reagent and mix. Pink or red colour indicates presence of Hydrogen peroxide.
- Boric acid
Method of Detection
- Take 3 ml of milk in test tube. Add 20 drops of hydrochloric acid and shake the test tube or mix up the contents thoroughly. Dip a yellow paper strip and remove the same after 1 minute. A change in colour from yellow to red, followed by the change from red to green by addition of once drop of ammonia solution indicates that the boric acid is present in milk.
Milk is most commonly diluted with water. This reduces its nutritional value and contaminated water can also cause additional health problems.The other adulterants used are mainly starch, sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), sugar, urea, hydrated lime, sodium carbonate, formalin, and ammonium sulphate.
The Indian Council of Medical Research has reported that “milk adulterants have hazardous health effects. The detergent in milk can cause food poisoning and other gastrointestinal complications. Its high alkaline level can also damage body tissue and destroy proteins. Other synthetic components can cause impairments, heart problems, cancer or even death. While the immediate effect of drinking milk adulterated with urea, caustic soda and formalin is gastroenteritis, the long-term effects are far more serious.”
Adulteration in Pulses
One of the greatest sources of protein, fiber, and nutrition is pulses. Adding pulses to everyday diet keeps us healthy. They are good for the heart and help manage diabetes and coeliac disease. But, addition of adulterants is common these days. These adulterants reduce the quality of pulses, giving naissance to curable and incurable diseases when consumed regularly.
Common adulterants in pulses
- Sand, marble chips, stones, these adulterants affect the digestive tract.
- Lathyrus sativus is mixed with khesari dal or other pulses
- Asbestos in particulate or powder form (for polishing); it causes cancer
- Metanil yellow is added to old stocks of pulses to enhance color; it is carcinogenic and causes stomach disorders. It also causes testicular degeneration in the male if consumed for long
- Soluble coal tar dye is used to enhance quality and make the pulses look clean; it is highly injurious to health.
- Khesari dal stones are often mixed with other pulses. Continuous consumption of this dal cause paralysis of the limbs.
Method of detection
The addition of extraneous matter like grains stone, marble chips and other filth to grain is also widely practised, specially in times of scarcity. These can be separated by visual inspection. In order to detect Metanil Soak the pulses in light warmed water. After sometimes, mix a few drops of hydrochloric acid into it. If after a while, a light pink colour would be noticeable indicating the presence of the metanil yellow .