1. Use of Biotechnology in the field of Medical Science
Biotechnology in the field of Medical Sciences deals with the development if therapy using cells or microorganisms by employing molecular engineering techniques. It includes the designing of organisms to manufacture pharmaceutical products like therapeutic proteins, antibiotics, vaccines, regenerative medicine and gene therapy. Medical biotechnology is also used in forensics through DNA profiling. In the field of medicine, insulin and interferon synthesized by bacteria have already been released for sale. A large number of vaccines for immunization against deadly diseases, DNA probes and monoclonal antibodies (including ELISA tests) for diagnosis of various diseases and human growth hormone and other pharmaceutical drugs for treatment of diseases are being released or are in the process of being released. DNA finger printing and autoantibody fingerprinting techniques are also proving a great boon in forensic medicine for identification of criminals like murderers and rapists through the study of DNA or antibodies from blood and semen stains, urine, tears, saliva, perspiration or hair roots etc.
2. Use of Biotechnology in the field of agriculture
Biotechnology has revolutionized research activities in the area of agriculture. Agricultural biotechnology which is also known as green biotechnology, involves the use of environmental friendly solutions as an alternative to traditional industrial agriculture, horticulture, and animal breeding processes.
The following are some examples of green biotechnology:
- Disease free and disease resistant plants.
- Induction and selection of mutants resistant to pests, pathogens, adverse soil conditions, drought, temperature, herbicides etc. Glyphosphate resistance in tobacco plants has been obtained by isolating a resistant gene from Salmonella typhimurium and introducing this into tobacco cells through Ri plasmid vectors.
- Somatic hybrids and cybrids through the fusion of protoplasts.
- Use of bacteria to have the plants grow faster, resist frost, and ripen earlier.
- Nitrogen fixation
- Micropropagation for biomass energy production.