Food Adulteration –Rules and Regulations

Food Adulteration –Rules and Regulations

The Government of India is fully aware to the possibilities of food being adulterated. It has therefore, empowered several agencies and promulgated a number of acts and orders to contract the menace. Agencies and institutions have also been created to lay down standards for the quality of foods. The manner in which the food is processed and packaged is also covered by a number of regulations. Following measures have been taken by the government to control the quality of food.
Laws governing the food industry
Some of the   food laws have been mentioned below:

  • Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 (FSSA)
  • Edible Oils Packaging (Regulation) Order, 1998
  • Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
  • Fruit Products Order, 1955 (FPO)
  • Meat Food Products Order, 1973 (MFPO)
  • Milk and Milk Product Order, 1992 (MMPO)
  • Solvent Extracted Oil, De-oiled Meal and Edible Flour (Control) Order, 1967
  • Standards of Weights and Measures Act, 1976
  • The Essential Commodities Act, 1955
  • The Export (Quality Control and Inspection) Act, 1963
  • The Insecticides Act, 1968
  • Vegetables Oil Products (Control) Order, 1998
  • Prevention of Food Adulteration Act & Rules (PFA Act), 1954

A few of the Food Laws which can be declared voluntarily by the manufacturers of finished products are as follows:

  • Agmark Standards (AGMARK),
  • Codex Alimentarius Standards,
  • BIS Standards and Specifications,

Prevention of food adulteration Act (1954)
One of the early acts to be promulgated in this connection was the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act of 1954, which has been in force since June 1,1955. The objective of this act was to ensure that food articles sold to the customers are pure and wholesome. PFA also intended to prevent fraud or deception and encourages fair trade practices. The act was amended in 1964 and again in 1976 in the light of experience gained, to plug loopholes of escape in the Act and to insure stringent punishment for those indulging in this nefarious practice.
The Act prohibits the manufacture, sale and distribution of not only adulterated foods but also foods contaminated with toxicants and misbranded foods. A Central Food Laboratory located at Calcutta and the Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore has also been recognized for testing of adulterated foods. “A central committee for food standards” has been constituted under the Act and has been charged with the function of advising the Central Government on matters relating to the Food standards.
According to the Act, an article of food shall be deemed to be adulterated.

  1. If the article sold by a vendor is not of the nature, substance or quality demanded by the purchaser and as it is represented to be.
  2. If it contains any other substance or processed as to affect injuriously the nature.
  3. If any inferior or cheaper substance has been substituted wholly or in part for the article.
  4. If the article had been prepared, packed or kept under unsanitary conditions whereby it has become contaminated or injurious to health;
  5. If the article consists of any filthy, putrid, disgusting, rotten, decomposed or diseased animal or vegetable substance or is insect-infested or otherwise unit for human consumption.
  6. If the article is obtained from a diseased animal;
  7. If the article contains any poisonous or other ingredient which renders its contents injurious to health;
  8. If the container of the article is composed of any poisonous or deleterious substance which renders it contents injurious to health;
  9. If any colouring matter other than as prescribed and in amounts not within the prescribed limits of variability is present in the article;
  10. If the article contains any prohibited preservative or permitted preservative in excess of the prescribed limits;

If the quality or purity of the article falls below the prescribed standard or its constituents are present in quantities, which are in excess of the prescribed limits of variability.

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