“A form of brand or advertising campaign that involves a well known person using their fame to help promote a product or service.”
” Endorsements are a form of advertising that uses famous personalities or celebrities who command a high degree of recognition, trust, respect or awareness amongst the people.”
Celebrity branding or celebrity endorsement is a form of advertising campaign or marketing strategy used by brands, companies, or a non-profit organization which involves celebrities or a well-known person using their social status or their fame to help promote a product, service or even raise awareness on environmental or social matters.Marketers use celebrity endorsers in hopes that the positive images of the celebrity endorser of the brand will also be passed on to the products or the brand image associated with the celebrities
Determinants of celebrity endorsement
Credibility is “the extent to which the recipient sees the source as having relevant knowledge, skills, or experience and trusts the source to give unbiased, objective information” . The two most important aspects of credibility are expertise and trust. Celebrities are seen as credible sources of information and the credibility of a celebrity is described as the total amount of positive features that create and increase the acceptation of the message.
Expertise of celebrity endorsement is being defined as “the extent to which an endorser is perceived to be a source of valid assertions”. With regard to expertise, it isn’t important that the celebrity is really an expert in the field. It is important that consumers think and believe a celebrity has expertise. The level of celebrity expertise will determine its effectiveness . The more expertise a celebrity has, the more effective it will be. The expertise of a celebrity will not be changed by negative publicity, but the believability and credibility will be negatively influenced.
Trustworthiness refers to “the honesty, integrity and believability of an endorser” . Companies try to find endorsers who are widely seen as trustful and who are seen as honest, believable and dependable . Trustworthiness is the most important factor with regard to the source credibility and influences credibility Moreover, likeability is mentioned as the most important attribute of trust . Advertisers can create the highest effect by taking these two factors, liking and trustworthiness, into account. Because it is stated when consumers like a celebrity, they will automatically trust a celebrity.
The concept of attractiveness does not only entail the physical attractiveness. Attractiveness also entails concepts such as intellectual skills, personality properties, way of living, athletic performances and skills of endorsers . Celebrities can be attractive because they established for example great sport performances and people have great respect for their achievement and therefore are attracted to them. Physical attractiveness suggests that a celebrity determines the effectiveness of persuasion as a result of that consumers wanting to be like the endorser and wanting to identify themselves with that endorser.
Similarity is described as “a supposed resemblance between the source and the receiver of the message” . In other words: if a consumer can identify him/herself with the endorser. People can be influenced more easily by an endorser who is similar to them. If the celebrity and the consumer have common factors like common interests or lifestyles, a better cohesiveness is created . That is why celebrities are selected upon their characteristics that match well with consumers. Companies also try to create empathy using celebrities . Using empathy, companies try to create a bond between the celebrity and the consumer. Also the level of persuasiveness is increased by using similarity. Companies might choose to pick a regular-looking person who is not a celebrity, because consumers can identify themselves more easily.
Likeability is the “affection for the source as a result of the source’s physical appearance and behaviour” . In addition, states that when people like the celebrity they will also like the accompanying brand and therefore celebrities are used in commercials and advertisements. Celebrity endorsement will influence the consumer behaviour and attitude and advertisers believe that a celebrity can influence the consumer’s vision of the company’s image.
Familiarity is the supposed resemblance as knowledge that a celebrity endorser possesses through exposure . When companies choose a celebrity, it is important to what extent consumers are familiar with the celebrity. The more familiar the consumer is with the celebrity, the more positive the effect will be. It is also well known that consumers, who are more familiar with a celebrity and are more exposed to a celebrity, will automatically like a celebrity more; this is called the mere exposure effect . The effect of familiarity on attitude increases when there are brief exposures of the celebrity and when there are longer delays between the exposures. The effect decreases when there are long exposures of the celebrity and when there are shorter delays between the exposures.