Higher Education System Updated UGC NET Paper 1 Study Material

Values in our general life, we see that the things, which are worthful at present time, become deteriorated in worth after a period of time. Values are those entities which are worthful forever in same extent. “In brief we need to know something of religion, philosophy, and ideology of the people”. These aspects of a culture are considered as values because the guiding social aims and religious beliefs of people are ideas they think worthwhile of which they attach value.
Value education means, education is a process of developing in the child knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and behavior patterns that society considers desirable for him to have, both as an individual and as a member of society. Value education means inculcating in the children a sense of humanism, a deep concern for the well being of others and the nation. Through value education one can develop the social, moral, aesthetic and spiritual sides of a person which are often undermined in formal education. Value education teaches us to preserve whatever is good and worthwhile in what we have inherited from our culture.

Values in general could be classified broadly as:
1. Personal Values
2. Social Values
3. Moral Values
4. Spiritual Values
5. Behavioral Values

1. Personal Values
Personal values refer to those values which are desired and cherished by the individual irrespective of his or her social relationship. The individuals determines his own standards of achievement and attains these targets without explicit interaction with any other person. Examples : ambition, cleanliness, contentment, courage, creativity, determination, dignity of labour, diligence, excellence, honesty, hope, maturity, regularity, punctuality, simplicity etc.

2. Social Values
Social values are concerning to the society. Unlike personal values, the practice of social values necessitates the interaction of two or more persons. These values are always practiced in relation to our neighbours, community, society, nation and the world. Social values are local, parochial and temporary in application. Examples : brotherhood, environment concern, freedom, hospitality, justice, sharing, sympathy, team spirit etc.

3. Moral Values
Moral values refer to those values which are related to an individual’s character and personality conforming to what is right and virtuous.
The realm of moral values is rather a debatable one. According to the sage Yagnavalkya, as a moral value ‘dharma’ signifies the cultivation of the virtues of non-injury, sincerity, honesty, cleanliness, control of the senses, charity, self-restraint, love and forbearance. It may be observed that this list includes both social values and individual values. Example of moral values: honesty, integrity, sense of responsibility, compassion etc.

4. Spiritual Values
We define ethical value as the perception of the ‘within’ in man, it arises from the inner depth dimension of man, it bestows the capacity to see the false as the false and the true as the true, it is the key to the integration of man. The ultimate ethical value is called spiritual value. Spiritual value is the awareness itself. All knowledge is structures in consciousness. This recognizes that consciousness alone can be totally self reliant so that pure mind or non- dual state of mind is presented as an object to pure consciousness, then it reveals itself, or in other words, non dual mind perceives the spiritual value. Virtues that are associated with spiritual values are: purity, contentment, austerity, devotion to God, self discipline, control of senses, meditation etc.

5. Behavioural Values
Behavioural values refer to all good manners that are needed to make our life successful and joyous. They are those values which we exhibit by our conduct and behavior in our daily life. Behavioural values will adorn our life and spread cordiality, friendliness and love all around. Keeping in view the nature of proefessional requirements values can be classified into several categories such as economic, social, political, spiritual, modern, aesthetic, religious, material, academic, socio-political, global, environmental, cultural, moral, professional values etc.

Source of Value Education
There are many different sources, which can be utilized by the teachers to impart value education. They are as follows.
(i) Regular subjects of the school curriculum is the first source of value education
Whatever subject we teach, there is a set of values, which is hidden in structure and methodology. The teacher will have to find it out and accordingly impart instructions. For example, general science is associated with such values as free inquiry, commitment to truth and mathematics with such qualities of mind as logical thinking, neatness and precisions. Similarly, literature and history have their own distinctive values.
(ii) Co-curricular activities are the second important source for the development values
They provide young pupils with opportunities for self-expression and self-fulfillment. The students-self-government in school, NCC, NSS, Boy Scouts and Girls Guides, Red- Cross, the various clubs and associations, games and sports, excursions and field visits, all provide opportunities for the students to come together in the pursuit of common goals and ideals. Besides the development of creativity and distinctive intellectual, social and cultural interests, students also learn from these activities, the values of democratic living, co- operation, tolerance, secularism and responsibility. These activities provide experience in learning values through actual living.
(iii) The environment is the third source of value education
Some great Indian personalities in like Tagore, Gandhi and Sri Aurobindo laid much stress on the creation of a conducive environment in centres of learning for the development of personality of the students. The personal examples and hard work of the teachers, the ideals of the teachers, pupils and the parents help the students to acquire right values in life.
Attempts for Value Oriented Education in India
An awareness for the inculcation of right values has been growing in India since Independence.
1. Education Commission (1964-66)
The report of the Education Commission (1964-66) stated that “The expanding knowledge and the growing power which modernization places at the disposal of society, must therefore, be combined with the strengthening and deepening of the sense of social responsibility and a keener appreciation of moral and spiritual values. The social and ethical conflicts, In the situation that is developing, it is equally important for us to weakening of social and moral values in the younger generation is creating many serious and give a proper value orientation to our educational system.”
The main purpose of the commission was not to prepare a list of values to inculcate. It only emphasised to inculcate right values in the students at all stages of education.
2. University Education Commission (1948)
The University Education Commission (1948) considered both the philosophical and practical aspects of value-oriented education and made certain valuable proposals for reform. But they were implemented only in a small number of institutions.
3. Sri Prakash Committee (1959)
The Central Advisory Board of Education appointed a Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction in the year 1959. It is popularly known as the Prakash Committee. It is a matter of sorrow that the response from the educational institutions is very poor.
4. Kothari Commission
Under the circumstances, the Kothari Commission has given the following recommendations to adopt active measures to give a value-oriented education. The recommendations are:
• The Central and State Government should adopt measures to introduce education in moral, social and spiritual values in all institutions under their direct control on the rural recommended by the University Education Commission on religious and moral
• The privately managed institutions should also be expected to follow
• Apart from education m such values being made an integral part of School Programmes generally, some periods should be set apart in the time-table for this They should be taken, not by specially recruited teachers, but by general teachers preferably from different communities considered suitable for the purpose. It should be one of the important objectives of training institutions to prepare teachers for it.
• We also suggest that the University Department in Comparative Religion should be specially concerned with the ways in which these values can be wisely and effectively imparted and should undertake preparation of special literature for use by students and teachers.

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