Higher Education System Updated UGC NET Paper 1 Study Material

Evolution of Higher Education Post Independence

Even before independence, a number of commissions have been appointed to survey Indian Education- The Indian Education Commission of 1882, The Commission of 1902 and The Sadler Commission of 1917. Problems of educational reconstruction were reviewed by several commission and committees, notably by the University Education Commission (1948-49) and the Secondary Education Commission (1952-53). Article 45 of the Indian Constitution promised free and compulsory education within the first decade of our independence but achieved very little, partly due to its non-judicial character. The Indian Education Commission (1964-66), under the leadership of D.S. Kothari and J.P. Naik as the Chairman and Member-Secretary that laid the foundation of post-independent India’s national education policy, was appointed to advise government on the ‘national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects’

1. The Indian University Commission was appointed by Lord Curzon on January 27, 1902 to inquire into the conditions and prospects of Indian universities and to suggest Two Indians Gurdas Banerjee and Syed Husan Bilgram were included in the commission.
The recommendations were :
i. No new university will be established.
ii. Existing universities (Calcutta, Bombay, Madras, Allahabad and Punjab) should be reorganized as teaching bodies.
iii. There should be proper representation of teachers and college lecturers in the university senate.
iv. The university should strictly enforce rules and ensure systematic supervision of the affiliated colleges.
v. The commission also suggested reforms in Examination, Postal facilities and improvement in libraries and Laboratories facilities. .
vi. The commission suggested that there should be a managing committee-for every college.
v. B.A. Course should be extended to three years and intermediate should be abolished.

2. The recommendations of Indian University Commission appeared after slight amendment in the shape of Indian Universities act, 1904.
It commended the following provisions:
i. University functions were enlarged by giving powers to appoint their own staff and to provide facilities for research work.
ii. The principle of election was The older universities were to have 20 and new one 15 elected members.
iii. Statutory recognition was granted to the syndicate with proper representation of university teachers.
iv. Strict rules for the affiliation of colleges.

3. On September 14, 1917 Calcutta university commission, also known as Sadler commission was appointed by the of India under the Chairmanship of Sir Michael Sadler the vice-Chancellor of the Leeds university.
Its recommendations were :
i. Admission to the university should take place after intermediate stage in place of matriculation.
ii. Intermediate classes should be separated from the university. A new type of institutions to be known as Intermediate Colleges should be created.
iii. Three years degree course.
iv. Provisions of tutorial classes and seminars in higher education.
v. Subjects such as Medicine, Engineering, Agriculture, Commerce, Education, Science and Arts should be included in the diversified curricula.
vi. Vernacular should be the medium of instruction through the higher schools except for the teaching of English and Mathematics.
vii. There should be Board of secondary and intermediate examination in each province. The Board should be free from official influence. They should consist of 15 to 18 representatives from Govt. University Intermediate Colleges and High Schools.
viii. Less rigid Govt. control over the universities.
ix. University teachers should be appointed by selection committees including external members.
x. Education should be made a subject of study at the intermediate and B.A. examinations.
xi. Departments of education should be created at the university of Calcutta and Dacca.
xii. The number of trained teachers should be increased without any delay.
xiii. To strengthen vocational education university course should include applied science and technology.
ix. Courses of intermediate colleges should be given a vocational bias.

4. The govt. of India Act 1935 improved and divided all educational activities into two categories: (a) Federal (b) State
Federal Subjects were:
i. The Imperial Library Calcutta; The Indian Museum Calcutta; The Imperial War Museum, The Victoria Memorial Calcutta, and any similar institution controlled or financed by the Federation.
ii. Education in the defence forces.
iii. The Banaras Hindu University and the Aligarh Muslim University.
iv. Preservation of ancient and historical monuments.
v. Education in centrally administered areas.
vi. Archaeology
All matters regarding education of all other categories other than those included in the Federal list given above were regarded as state or provincial subjects.

5. In 1944, to review the condition of Indian Educational Committee headed by Sir John Sargent was appointed. The committee submitted its recommendation to CABE.
Its recommendations were:
i. Class XI should be added to the high school and XII to the university This would mean that university education shall run for three years.
ii. University education should be given only to few deserving dynamic students.
iii. University grants commission should be appointed.
iv. Only competent teachers should be appointed.
v. Research methods should be encouraged.
vi. Encouragement to the higher category of workers training institutions.
vii. Skilled craftsmen should be provided by imparting technical education in senior high schools.
viii. Sargeant Report recommended that adult education should be encouraged and various audio visual aids as music, drama, folk dance, film shows should be used.
ix. Three types of training institution for under graduate teachers:
(a) Pre-primary (b) Basic (c) High schools
x. Free training should be provided in the training colleges.
xi. Refresher courses, research facilities, free training, good salary and service conditions were the among the chief recommendations of the report.
xii. Physical education, compulsory physical training and free mid-day meal should be provided to the students.
xiii. Regular medical check up and free treatment of detected Complete medical record of the students be maintained.
xiv. There should be provision of recreational and social activities according to the age and requirements of, the students. These activities may be of anyone of the following:
(a) Folk-dance
(b) Debates
(c) Scout and Guide
(d) Gardening etc.
xv. Establishment of employment Bureaus of educational departments and university employment They would ensure the smooth placement of students in various jobs according to their interests and abilities.
xvi. The report emphasized the need of dose contact and co-ordination among all educational institutions. In every province there should be Educational Advisory Board.

6. The university education commission Was constituted on November 4, 1948 under the chairmanship of former vice-chancellor of Banaras university and second President of India Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan. The commission was inaugurated by Abdul Kalam Azad, the then education minister on Dec. 6, 1948. It submitted its report in Aug. 1949.
Its recommendations were:
i. It recommended for eighteen periods in a week, but research students should have between twelve to fifteen periods.
ii. The commission also suggested pay scales of the teaching Security of service and appointment of tribunals for settling disputes between teachers and administrations, were the other chief recommendations of the commission.
iii. Unity of knowledge between university and intermediate colleges’ courses of studies.
iv. Three phases of Education:
(a) General education, (b) Liberal education (c) Occupational education
v. The commission laid stress on flexible curriculum.
vi. The commission also suggested wide ranging courses of study at secondary and first degree course.
vii. Teaching of M.A. and Sc. degree students should be properly organised by means of regular lectures; seminars and laboratory work
viii. PhD. Degree should be two years and the students examination should include a thesis and a viva-voice to test the general knowledge in the whole field of the subject.
ix. Research training should be encouraged by giving fellowships arid scholarships to the competent students.
x. One third marks should be allotted to class work.
xi. Uniform system of classification. A candidate should get 70% or more marks to get first class, 55% to 69% for a second class and at least 40% for third class.
xii. No system of awarding grace marks.
xiii. Viva-voice examinations for post graduate and professional degrees.
xiv. The commission laid down the following steps to recognize agriculture as a major national issues.
(a) Strengthening of Agricultural colleges.
(b) Priority to agricultural education in primary, secondary and higher education as well as in national economic planning.
c) Opening of experimental farms, agricultural colleges
(d) Agricultural research should also be supported.
xv. Practical knowledge and training should be given to the students. Some students should be advised to become specialist in a particular profession.
xvi. Number of admissions to a medical college within a year should be 100 and not more than 10 patients should be kept under a student.
xvii. Greater importance should be given to Public Health and Nursing. Medical colleges should be well equipped and research should be promoted.
xviii. More colleges of Engineering and Technology should be opened. All these institutions should be nationalized. Higher researches, practical skill and knowledge should be given great All these institutions should be free to manage their own affairs.
xix. Law education should be thoroughly recognized.
xx. Law colleges should be reorganized to ensure uniformity in law education.
xxi. More weightage should be given to practice of teaching.
xii. The courses on the theory of education should be flexible.
xxiii. Students should be encouraged to proceed to the Master’s degree in education after some experience.
xxiv. Teachers of the training colleges should be encouraged to do original researches.

7. Essentials for university

(a) Visitor
(b) Chancellor
(c) Vice-Chancellor
(d) Syndicate
(e) Faculty
(f) Academic council
(g) Senate
(h) Board of studies
(i) Selection committee
(j) Finance committee

8. The President of India should be the visitor, and the Governor of the state should be the chancellor of all the universities in his state.

9. Govt. of India appointed Indian Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. D.S. Kothari in 1964.

It recommended for :
i. National staff college of education administration should be established for training in educational administration and supervision.
ii. The commission also suggested to plan priorities of the education department and efforts should be made to provide qualitative education at low cost.
iii. The commission also advocated to strengthen the NCERT and other central and state level bodies for the development of the system .

10. National Policy of Education (1992) initiated a the school level minimum level of learning(MIL), at primary sage, Operation Blackboard, pace setting of Navodaya Vidyalays and vocationalization of education at secondary stage.

11. Following Universities were established before Independence :
i. Calcutta University – 1957
ii. Bombay University – 1857
iii. Madras University – 1857
iv. Panjab University – 1882
v. Allahabad University – 1887
vi. Banaras University – 1916
vii. Mysore University – 1916
viii. S.N.D.T. Women University – 1916
ix. Patna University – 1917
x. Hyderabad University -1918
xi. Lucknow University – 1921
xii. Nagpur University – 1923
xiii. Rangoon University – 1923
xiv. Dacca University – 1921
xv. Aligarh University – 1921
xvi. Delhi University – 1922
xvii. Andhra University – 1926
xviii.Agra University – 1927
xix. Annamalai University – 1929
xx. Trivancore University – 1937
xxi. Utkal University – 1943
xxii. Saugarh University – 1946
xxx. Singh University – 1947
xxxi. Rajputana University – 1947

12. Some prominent milestones/ institutions established since independence to strengthen the higher education are:
i. National Council of Teachers (1995)
ii. Khuda Bakhsh Oriental Public Library Jhansi
iii. Registration of Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan (1965)
iv. Navodaya Vidyalaya (1985-86)
v. National Literacy Mission (1988)
vi. National Open School (1989)
vii. N.C.E.R.T. (1961)
viii. IGNOU (1985)
ix. Sahitya Academy – 18 March, 1956. Branch offices at Bombay, Calcutta, Bangalore and Madras
x. N.D.T. Women University – Bombay
xi. Laxmibai Physical Training College-Gwalior.
xii. Central Institute of Education – Delhi
xiii. Launching of ‘Satellite Instructional Television Scheme – August 1975

13. Independent India inherited ownership of its system of higher education from the colonialists, but the need for the reconstruction of education was felt long before independence. However, it was only after independence that the national leadership had an independent opportunity to tackle the problem. Nehru’s remarks to the educational conference of 1948 very strongly expressed the view that :
“Whenever conferences were called to form a plan for education in India, the tendency, as a rule, was to maintain the existing system with slight modification. This must not happen now. Great changes have taken place in the county and the educational system must also be in keeping with them. The entire basis of education must be revolutionized.”

14. The nationalist spirit that had brought about the independence of the country became the motivating force behind a great number of changes that were initiated in the country. Nationalist leaders, faced with the socio-economic reality of India, were all firm in the belief that education had a revolutionary task to fulfill.
The Radhakrishnan Commission of 1948 envisaged that as follows:

“The academic problem has assumed new shape; we have now a wider conception of the duties and responsibility of universities. They have to provide leadership in politics and administration, the professions, industry and commerce. They have to meet the increasing demand for every type of higher education, literacy and scientific, technical and professional (knowledge). They must enable the country to attain, in as short a time as possible, freedom from want disease and ignorance, by the application and development of scientific and technical knowledge.”

15. As Chair of the Commission, Dr. S. Radhakrishnan recommended the reconstruction of university education as essential to meet the demand for scientific, technical and other human power needed for the socio-economic development of the country. For this, the Commission has gave the following recommendations:

“Covering all aspects of university education in India, they emphasized the 10+2 structure at the pre-university stage, correction of the “extreme specialization” in the courses, development of research to advance the frontiers of knowledge and of professional education in agriculture, commerce, law, medicine, education, science and technology including certain new areas such as business and public administration and industrial relations and suggested reform of the examination system by assessment of the student’s work throughout the years and introduction of courses on the central problems of the philosophy of religion. They also emphasized the importance of student’s welfare by means of scholarships and stipends, hostel, library and medical facilities and suggested that they should be familiar with three languages–regional, federal and English at the university stage and that English be replaced as early as possible by an Indian language. The Commission was also in favour of the idea of setting up rural universities to meet the need of rural reconstruction in industry, agriculture and various walks of life. The universities should be constituted as autonomous bodies to meet the new responsibilities, (Central) University Grants Commission should be established for allocating grants, and finally, university education be placed in the concurrent list.”

The report was considered by the Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) in 1950 and most of the recommendations were accepted, although recommendations relating to the inclusion of Education in the concurrent list were rejected. The University Grants Commission came into being and assumed a most important role in the co-coordination and development of universities in India. A number of the recommendations of the Radhakrishnan Commission have been implemented including the expansion of women’s education at all levels. In 1950-51 there were only 43 women enrolled in university courses but by 1976-77 they represented 25.8% of the total enrolment for higher education. Right from the time of the first five-year plan, major changes prompted reform of the university system. The third five-year plan observed that: “Education is the most important single factor in achieving rapid development and technological progress and in creating a new social order based on values of freedom, social justice and equal opportunities”. There have been various commissions and committees appointed by the Government of India and the University Grants Commission from time to time. The Kothari Commission was one of them.

15. Kothari Comminssion (1964-1966)
The most important document on Education in India is the report of the Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. D. S. Kothari, then Chairman, University Grants Commission, to advise the Government of India “On the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects.”[Report of The Education Commission (1964-66): Education and National Development, Government of India, New Delhi, Part I and Part II. 1985].
The report made very important recommendations covering all aspects for the future development of national education. The Report emphasized the need for a built-in flexibility in the system of education, and for the necessity of education to be science-based and coherent with Indian culture and values (Power, 1995 p. 39). It also visualized education as an instrument for the nation’s progress, security and welfare.
The report stressed that there had to be:
i. a radical improvement in the quality and standard of higher education and research
ii. expansion of higher education to meet manpower requirements of the Nation and the rising social ambitions and expectations of the people, and
iii. improvement of university organization and administration.

The Commission recommended special measures for major universities to ensure quality of research development of other universities and affiliated colleges, improvement in teaching and evaluation by re-organisation of courses and examinations, opportunities for part-time education, and special attention to women’s education. As far as the implementation of the Kothari Commission is concerned, the recommendations were discussed in both the Houses of Parliament and there emerged the first national policy in independent India in the form of a resolution in July 1968. Perhaps not surprisingly, the recommendations of the Kothari Commission were progressively diluted at every stage of the discussions, yet the policy that was born out of them remained the basic framework for all governmental action despite an attempt by the Government to revise it in 1979. The new education policy appeared in May 1986.

Scroll to top
You cannot copy content of this page. The content on this website is NOT for redistribution