RESEARCH APTITUDE Updated UGC NET Notes 2020
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UGC Net paper 1 Updated Syllabus
Research: Meaning, types and characteristics, positive and post-positivistic approach to research.
Methods of Research: Experimental, Descriptive, Historical, Qualitative and Quantitative and Qualitative methods.
Steps of Research
Thesis and Article writing: Format and styles of referencing.
Application of ICT in research
MEANING OF RESEARCH
First, we should start from the word ‘research’. This word is made up by adding ‘Re’ as a prefix to the word ‘search’. Search is to make known of an existent unknown thing. Therefore, research (search of searched) means to elicit some facts out of a known thing. Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge
Every letter of the word ‘research’ emphasizes a special and dignified meaning as given below.
R – Rational (way of thinking)
E – Expert/Exhaustive (Treatment)
S – Search (for solution)
E – Exactness
A – Analytical Analysis (of adequate data)
R – Relationship (of facts)
C – Careful (recording)/ critical (observation) / constructive (attitude) / condensed/and compactly (stated Generalisation
H – Honesty/Hard work
Research is thus, an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement. It is the pursuit of truth with the help of study. observation, comparison and experiment. In short, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution to a problem in research.
Reasearch is generally oriented towards looking into 5 Ws and 1H of a problem that Who, What, Where, When, Why and How. As said by Bernard Baruch, ‘ Millions saw the apple fall, but Newton was the one who asked Why’. It was this Why which lead to the discovery of the Law of Gravitation.
We can summarize the modern meaning of research in following points-Research is
- an attitude of inquiry,
- an attempt to elicit facts
- a systematic and scholarly application of the scientific method.
- essentially a state of mind – a friendly, welcoming attitude towards change.
Research is systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomenon.
Research may be defined as the systematic method of discovering new facts or verifying old facts, their sequences, interrelationships, casual explanations and the natural laws which govern them.
Research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested, solutions, collecting, organizing and evaluating data, making deductions and reaching conclusions and at last carefully listing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis.
Research is the systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled observations that may leave to development of generalizations, principles or theories result in prediction and possibly ultimate control of events.
Research is systematized effort to gain new knowledge.
– Redman and Mary
Research is the manipulation of things concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge ends in constructions of theory or in the practice of an art.
– D. Sleringer and M.Stephenson
CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
- It is a scientific investigation. Research (re-search) means to “search again.’ It connotes patient study and scientific investigation.
- It develops concepts and the theories. One reason for conducting research is to develop and evaluate concepts and the theories.
- It is solution oriented and directed towards the solution of a problem.
- It determines the relation between two or more variables.
- Research emphasizes to the development of theories, concept, principles and generalization that are helpful in predicting future occurrences.
- Research is replicable. The design, procedures and result of scientific research should be replicable so that any person other than researcher may assess the validity of research.
- Research requires that researchers have full knowledge of the problem under the study.