Research Aptitude Free Study Material (UGC NET Updated Notes 2020)


A paper is defined as an essay or dissertation read at a seminar or published on a journal. It is either a result of research effort or an intellectual exercise. A research paper may entail all the steps of research such as literature survey, data collection and so on . It usually follows the journal’s editorial policy. Conceptual papers are not based on data. It presents facts of research in a logical and lucid style. They can be analytical or argumentative. The paper usually requires that the sources are cited in a bibliography given at the end.


The articles are usually informative in nature, which typically address the topic in a general scope as a means of introduction. They may appear in newspaper, magazine, consumer or industry publication.

A research article is written by and for researchers for the purpose of making specific findings known to the scientific community at large.

It includes a problem or question, method of research, data and conclusions. Research article is found exclusively in a peer-reviewed scientific or medical journal, such as Journal of Medical Research.

A research article illustrates the outcome of scientific research with supporting clinical data. A research article could be used as a reference when writing a research paper.


Workshops tend to be smaller and more intense than seminars. This format involves students practicing their new skills during the event under the watchful eye of an instructor. Hands-on workshops typically involve participants doing work on a particular issue during the program. The promise is that when they leave, they’ll have at least a rough plan or tools in place to address the challenge.


The word seminar is derived from the Latin word seminarium, meaning seed plot. It is formal presentation by one or more experts to a small group of audience. It can be conducted on recurring or regular basis, monthly or even weekly, there is an invited speaker, and audience is much more technically versed or specific in nature.

The motive behind the seminar system is to familiarize the students extensively with vital aspects of their study and also to allow them to interact with examples of practical problems that always occur during study or research work. A seminar is, thus, a form of academic instruction either at an academic institution or offered by a commercial or professional organization.

Seminars focus on some particular subject in which everyone present is requested to actively participate.


It is usually a formal meeting at which specialists deliver short address on a topic or on related topics and then answer the questions relating to these topics. It is especially one in which the participants form an audience and make presentations. Symposium is also defined as a collection of writings on a particular topic, as in a magazine.


It is usually an academic meeting at which specialists deliver addresses on a topic or on related topics and then answer the questions relating to these topics. A colloquium is targeted to a well-educated but not specialized audience.


A conference is a meeting of people who confer about a topic. It is a meeting where people come for discussion. It features keynotes and presentations delivered to all attendance, as well as multiple break out sessions. Attendencees expect to receive information about industry trends and developments.

It can be an academic conference, a business conference, a parent teacher conference, a peace conference or so on.


A meeting is an assembly or coming together of people whether it is a symposium, workshop, conference or so. In a very remote sort of way, all of them convey the same meaning-that is, people coming together for a purpose.

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