Classification of Evaluation Techniques
A good evaluation device is one which secures valid evidence regarding the desired change of behavior. A teacher needs to know the various devices that are helpful in gathering evidence on the changes taking place in a pupil. They can be categorized into quantitative and qualitative techniques:
1. Written examination
It is also known as paper pencil test. In this technique, the answer are to be written as per the instruction of question.
2. Oral examination
They supplement the written examination. Examples are test of reading ability,and pronunciation, viva voice is also an example.
3. Practical examination
These tests are necessary to test experimental and manipulative skills of a learner, particularly in subjects such as scicence,technology, agriculture, craft and music.
Examination is the concern of the teacher, the greatest premium of parents and the first anxiety of the students. End products of all education efforts are appraised by evaluation.
Importance of Examinations
(i)Examinations help in testing the achievement of the pupils.
(ii)Examinations are also helpful in evaluating the individual interests, aptitudes, intelligence, physical, emotional, social and moral development.
(iii)They also provide an ease to classify the students, to provide guidance, to bring changes in curriculum and form the basis of admissions.
Dr. Radha Krishnan said, “if examination are necessary, thorough reform of these is still more necessary.”
1. Observation and interviews
Observation is used to evaluate the behavior of the pupil in controlled and uncontrolled situations. It is purposive and systematic and carefully viewing or observing the behavior and recording it. Interview is sometimes superior to other devices. It is because of the fact that pupils are usually more willing to talk than write.
A checklist is an instrument that is used for collecting and recording evidence regarding significant behavioural tendencies of the pupils or specific problems they present n the classroom.
3. Rating scale
Rating is a term applied to the expression of opinion or judgement regarding some situation, object, or character. Rating scale is a device by which judgements can be quantified.
4. Cumulative records
Anecdotal records, cumulative record cards, and diaries of pupils are some other devices used in evaluation process to know the details about a child’s behavior.
Types of Evaluation on Basis of Phase of Instruction
In the various phases of instruction, evaluation is integrated. The four types of evaluation are placement, formative, diagnostic and summative.
1. Placement evaluation
It determines the knowledge and skills the students possess, which are necessary at the beginning of instruction in a given subject area. The purpose of placement evaluation is to check the aptitude of a candidate for the course or subject, whether the candidate has caliber or no. various entrance exams can also be conducted for the same purpose. This is also done to see the knowledge base of students, and a teacher can start discussion keeping that in view.
2. Formative Evaluation
It is concerned with making decisions relating to forming or development of students as well as of the courses. It is also called internal evaluation and is a method of judging the worth of a programme while the programme activities are in progress. This evaluation provides the student with feedback regarding his or her success or failure in attaining the instructional objectives. It also identifies the specific learning error that need to be corrected. For instance, a student learns and scores high on the objective part of the test but fails in the essay part, he is reinforced to exert more effort in answering essay questions in the succeeding test. For a teacher, formative evaluation provides information for making instructions and remedies more effective. Quizzes, unit test, and chapter tests are examples of evaluative instruments used in this type of evaluation.
According to S.G. Jung
Formative evaluation occurs over a period of time and monitors students’ progress.
3. Diagnostic evaluation
This type of evaluation is generally done in the beginning of teaching-learning process in order to find out the specific weaknesses, either or an individual or at class level, and also to find out particular strengths. It helps to design the courses and curricula according to the capabilities of the learner to help him overcome his deficiencies in knowledge, skills and abilities.
4. Summative evaluation
It is also called external evaluation . It is a method of judging the worth of a programme at the end of the programme (summation). The focus is on the outcome. It determines the extent to which objective of instruction have been achieved and isd for assigning course grades. Summative evaluation generally includes oral reports, projects, term papers and teacher-made achievement tests, and it shows how good or how satisfactory the student is in accomplishing the objectives of instruction.
According to A.J. Nikto
Summative evaluation describes judgement about the merits of already completed program procedure or plan.
The process of evaluation has the following stages:
1. Formulating and selecting worthwhile objectives of teaching in a subject.
2. Classifying and defining objectives in terms of expected learning outcomes or behavioural changes in the pupils.
3. Developing appropriate learning experiences or activities.
4. Devising and adopting suitable assessment procedures to collect adequate and trust-worthy evidences about pupil’s achievement.
5. Evaluating the outcomes on the basis of evidences collected and modifying the necessary aspects of the entire system for better results.
Evaluation in Choice Based Credit System in Higher education
In the Choice-based Credit System (CBCS), students can opt for subjects from the available choices. The basic idea is to look into the needs of the students so as to keep up-to-date with development of higher education in India and abroad.Students have to complete the required credits in order to obtain the course certificate. Credit points and grade points are awarded to students and on the basis of these, the semester grade point average (SGPA) is calculated. The cumulative grade point average (CGPA) is calculated on the basis of performance in all the semesters.
Features of CBCS
i. This is a uniform CBCS for all central and state and other recognised universities.
ii. There are three main courses: Core, Elective and Foundation.
iii. There are also non-credit courses available which will be assessed as ‘Satisfactory’ or “Unsatisfactory’. This is not included in the computation of SGPA/CGPA.
iv. All the three main courses will be evaluated and accessed to provide for an effective and balanced result.
It has the following basic elements:
The assessment is done semester wise. A student progresses on the basis of the courses taken rather than time like three years for science, arts, commerce or four years for engineering etc. Each semester will have 15–18 weeks of academic work which is equal to 90 teaching days. There is flexibility in creating the curriculum and assigning credits based on the course content and hours of teaching.
ii. Credit system
Each course is assigned a certain credit. When the student passes that course, he earns the credits which are based on that course. If a student passes a single course in a semester, he does not have to repeat that course later. The students can earn credits according to his pace.
iii. Credit transfer
If for some reasons, he cannot cope with the study load or if he falls sick, he has the freedom to study fewer courses and earn fewer credits and he can compensate this in the next semester.
iv. Comprehensive continuous assessment
There is a continuous evaluation of the student not only by the teachers but also by the student himself.
UGC has introduced a 10-point grading system as follows:
Grades It is the index of performance denoted by 0, A+, A, B+, B, C, P, and F.
Grade point It is the numerical number assigned to each grade letter.
1. Academic Year
Two consecutive (one odd + one even) semesters constitute one academic year.
2. Choice Based Credit System (CBCS)
The CBCS provides choice for students to select from the prescribed courses (core, elective or minor or soft skill courses).
Usually referred to, as ‘papers’ is a component of a programme. All courses need not carry the same weight. The courses should define learning objectives and learning outcomes. A course may be designed to comprise lectures/ tutorials/laboratory work/ field work/ outreach activities/ project work/ vocational training/viva/ seminars/ term papers/assignments/ presentations/ self-study etc. or a combination of some of these.
Courses in a programme may be of three kinds: Core, Elective and Foundation.
i. Core Course
There may be a Core Course in every semester. This is the course which is to be compulsorily studied by a student as a core requirement to complete the requirement of a programme in a said discipline of study.
ii. Elective Course
Elective course is a course which can be chosen from a pool of papers. It may be:
a) Supportive to the discipline of study
b) Providing an expanded scope
c) Enabling an exposure to some other discipline/domain
d) Nurturing student’s proficiency/skill.
An elective may be “Generic Elective” focusing on those courses which add generic proficiency to the students. An elective may be “Discipline centric”or may be chosen from an unrelated discipline. It may be called an “Open Elective.”
iii. Foundation Course
The Foundation Courses may be of two kinds: Compulsory Foundation and Elective foundation. “Compulsory Foundation” courses are the courses based upon the content that leads to Knowledge enhancement. They are mandatory for all disciplines. Elective Foundation courses are value-based and are aimed at man-making education.
4. Credit Based Semester System (CBSS)
Under the CBSS, the requirement for awarding a degree or diploma or certificate is prescribed in terms of number of credits to be completed by the students.
5. Credit Point
It is the product of grade point and number of credits for a course.
A unit by which the course work is measured. It determines the number of hours of instructions required per week. One credit is equivalent to one hour of teaching (lecture or tutorial) or two hours of practical work/field work per week.
7. Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA)
It is a measure of overall cumulative performance of a student over all semesters. The CGPA is the ratio of total credit points secured by a student in various courses in all semesters and the sum of the total credits of all courses in all the semesters. It is expressed up to two decimal places.
8. Grade Point
It is a numerical weight allotted to each letter grade on a 10-point scale.
9. Letter Grade
It is an index of the performance of students in a said course. Grades are denoted by letters O, A+, A, B+, B, C, P and F.
An educational programme leading to award of a Degree, diploma or certificate.
11. Semester Grade Point Average (SGPA)
It is a measure of performance of work done in a semester. It is ratio of total credit points secured by a student in various courses registered in a semester and the total course credits taken during that semester. It shall be expressed up to two decimal places.
Each semester will consist of 15-18 weeks of academic work equivalent to 90 actual teaching days. The odd semester may be scheduled from July to December and even semester from January to June.
13. Transcript or Grade Card or Certificate
Based on the grades earned, a grade certificate shall be issued to all the registered students after every semester. The grade certificate will display the course details (code, title, number of credits, grade secured) along with SGPA of that semester and CGPA earned till that semester.
Advantages of Choice Based Credit System
i. CBCS allows students to choose subjects that they find interesting. Students perform better when they learn about things they like.
ii. They can learn at their own pace.
iii. CBCS system prepares students for the future. Industries want employees who are all-rounders with multidisciplinary knowledge and not students with knowledge about just one stream. Thus, CBCS imparts job-oriented skills.
iv. They can opt for additional courses and can achieve more than the required credits.
v. They can also opt for an interdisciplinary approach to learning.
vi. Inter college/university migration within the country and outside becomes easy with the transfer of Credits. This means that it will be easier for foreign universities to come and offer courses in India.
vii. Can opt for one part of the course in one institute and the other part in another institute. This will help in making a clear choice between good and bad colleges/ institutes.
viii. The students have more scope to enhance their skills and more scope of taking up projects and assignments, vocational training, including entrepreneurship.
ix. The system improves the job opportunities of students.
x. The system will help in enabling potential employers assess the performance of students on a scientific scale.
Disadvantages of CBCS
i. Not very easy to estimate the exact marks.
ii. Teachers’ workload may fluctuate.
iii. Needs proper and good infrastructure for a universal spread of education.