Four Modern Concepts of Teaching
It is the most important device of teaching. It occurs in two ways:
(a) The teacher should ask questions of all types – introductory, developing and recapitulatory.
(b) In order that the students should be active participants in the lesson, they should be trained to ask questions to the teachers.
Discussion clears the doubts of the students and enhances their ability of expressing opinions. For this purpose the class may be divided into groups. The teacher will direct discussion in such a way that pupils will be encouraged to express their opinions freely and independently. After the discussion, the teacher will classify the main points raised and sort them out into some order
Investigation may be individual or group and includes the presentation of information by the teacher. Investigation will be followed by expression which may be written, spoken or visual and concrete.
This is the last step of teaching. It will be in the form of practical activities under four headings (a) Passive (b) Active (c) Artistic (d) Organizational Activities.
Modes of Teaching
There are various modes of teaching. These include conditioning, training, instruction and indoctrination. These are a kind of teaching (or a part of teaching, i.e., whole teaching process include all these) but not a synonym with teaching. Some concepts related to various modes of teaching are as follows:-
- Training helps in shaping conduct and teaching various skills.
- Distinction between training and education maybe made through the evaluation of the degree of intelligent behaviour produced by them.
- Instruction and indoctrination work on a higher footing than conditioning and training as far as the involvement of intellectual powers and modes of teaching are concerned. But they cannot be equated with teaching.
- Instruction is mainly concerned with the development of knowledge and understanding in an individual which represents one of many objectives of education and teaching.
- Teaching is aimed towards shaping a total man, while instruction aims only for the development of intellect and affect the cognitive domain of behaviour. Teaching may include or cover instruction.
- Indoctrination represents a fairly high level of teaching, shaping beliefs and ideals. Indoctrination may mean teaching but teaching can be done without indoctrination.
Different Variables of Teaching
Teaching process involves following variables.
The student is a dependent variable. He is subjected to changes and developments through the efforts of the teacher and teaching process. In the process of teaching, the dependent variable plays the functional or active part.
2. Independent Variable
The teacher is an independent variable. He is responsible for the functioning of students, the dependent variables. He is free to act in the process while students are quite dependent on him. The teacher plans, organizes, leads and controls the process of teaching. Like dependent variables, independent variables also play the functional or active part.
3. Intervening Variables
There is need of desirable interaction between the dependent and the independent variable to achieve the goals of teaching. This role is played by the intervening variables. The content of teaching, methods and techniques, tactics and strategies management of instructional material and teaching environments, etc., are the Intervening Variables.