1. The new teaching recognizes the right of the pupil to do things in his own way, within reasonable limits.
2. The first principle of true teaching is that nothing can be taught. The teacher is a helper and a guide. His business is to suggest and not to impose.
– Sri Aurobindo
3. Effectiveness in learning lies not I reading and listening but in action, performance and experience.
– Caldwell Cook
4. The child learns more through sense experience.
5. The object in teaching is to bring more and more out rather than to put more and more in .
6. The need for development the natural instincts of the child without any outside restriction had been pointed by Roussealt but mainly in negative ways. Pestolozzi tried to upset Rousseav’s individualistic in balance without forgetting that, children must be educated as children before they become men. He mentioned that, knowledge of child’s nature was essential to the best instruction. The methods of instruction can vastly aid corrected education. Discipline was to be strict but kind. The most valuable lessons were to be learnt through direct experiences with objects and places and through observation, enquiry and reasoning. The major contribution of Pestalozzi was pupil activity to an extent formerly unknown, constructive and creative work and pupil discussion.
7. J.K. Harbert (1776-1841)
He believed that a mere accumulation of facts was useless and that facts must be so taught as to have meaning for the learner. This learning should lead to character formation. He mentioned that, the aim of education was ethical and moral. He taught the most important school subjects in character formation as history and literature.
8. According to Tagore ‘A lesson plan is actually a plan of action. Therefore, it includes the working philosophy of the teacher, her knowledge of philosophy, her information about and understanding of her pupils her comprehension of the objectives, education, knowledge of the lessons to be taught and her ability to acquire effective methods.
9. The psychology of individual differences is largely the study of group differences. This study classifies individuals by age, traits, sex, race, social class and so on, and observes the differences within and between those groups. Physical, mental, social and cultural differences etc. are being studied, under individual differences.”
– John P.De Ceeceo
The art of memorizing difficult information by setting up code for the information is referred to as mnemonics. For, example Students can remember the height of Mt. Fujiyama 12,365 feet by associating it with calendar (12 months and 365 days in a year.
11. The VARK model
Neil Fleming, a New Zealand teacher and educational theorist, designed the VARK model (visual, aural or auditory, read/write and kinesthetic). According to Fleming’s model, kinesthetic learners are similar to tactile learners in that they like hands-on experiential learning. They excel in concrete learning such as on-the-job training, work experience, internships, simulations and so forth.
The Fleming VAK/VARK model (one of the most common and widely used categorizations of the various types of learning styles) categorized learning styles as follows:
i. Hands-on learning
ii. Visual learning
iii. Auditory learning
iv. Read/write learning
v. Kinesthetic learning
Skill memory also fits into the category of kinesthetic learning, as it is what happens when somebody is learning kinesthetically. Skill memories are difficult to convey except by direct demonstration, may be acquired without awareness, and require several repetitions.
12. Black colour is sentimentally bad but, every black board makes the student’s life bright.
-A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
13. Dr. Radha Krishnan said, “if examination are necessary, thorough reform of these is still more necessary.”
14. According to Morrison – Teaching in autocratic atmosphere as an intimate contact between a more mature personality and a less mature one which is designed to further the education of the later.
15. According to Ryans – Teaching is concerned with the activities which are concerned with the guidance or direction of the learning.
16. According to Skinner – Teaching is the arrangement of contingencies of reinforcement.
17. Dr. S.K. Mitra (Ex-chairperson NCERT ) explains teaching as the essential act of a teacher, mainly carried out within the environment of schools or college or university or institution of society. there, the teacher does a service (an act of teaching) to his clients (students) either individually or in groups and this he does in a formal, systematic manner…………… By and large, one thinks of teaching as one act of instruction in the formal situation of a classroom.
18. Green have discussed the concept of Teaching Topology which is exhibited int eh following flow-diagram. In his Teaching Topology Green has elaborated this continuum of teaching where all the four ingredients viz. conditioning, training, instruction and indoctrination are fused in the act of teaching.
19. Mc Donald’s Concept of Teaching (1965)
Mc Donal has applied System Analysis in order to explain the nature of teaching. He had broadly categorised the process of teaching in the following four elements:
Besides these the overlapping zones in the given diagram represents its various congruences like,
v) Concomitant learning
vi) Teacher Modification Behaviour
vii) Inservice Experience
x. Planning Experiences
18. Types of Teaching
i. On the basis of Teaching Objectives
The teaching types are:
a) Cognitive = Brain Mechnism
b) Affective = Heart Mechanism
c) Psycho-motor = Motor Mechanism
ii. On the basis of Teaching Levels:
a) Memory Level
b) Understanding Level
c) Reflective Level
iii.On basis of Existing Political System
iv. On the basis of Nature of Teaching
v. On the basis of Educational Process
vi. On the basis of Educational Management
20. The teaching process has the following three variables:
i) Independent variable : Teacher
ii) Dependent variable : Student
iii) Intervening variables : Curriculum
21. Functions of Teaching variables
22. Teaching Continuum
Teaching Continuum can be break down into four basic elements:
21. Phases or Operations
a) Pre-active Phase
The teaching plan is being prepared under this phase of teaching.
b) Intermediate Phase
All those activities which are performed by a teacher after entering in a class are clubbed under inter-active phase.
c) Post-active Phase
it is related with evaluation aspect of teaching. After the stipulated time of teaching the teacher evaluates student, behaviour in order to judge the realization of the objectives.
23. According to Smith – The teaching is a process which gives birth to learning.
24. Burton has elaborated the mutual relationship between teaching and learning as following :
i. Teaching and learning are the two basic operations of instruction. therefore by developing a coordination between these two elements one can make the effective teaching.
ii. Teaching is a purpose process. Therefore after determining the objectives in a practical form, such activities of teaching can be organised which may help in bringing desirable changes in behaviour.
iii. The learning theories can be led in the development of teaching theories.
iv. The psychological elements and forces can be successfully used in teaching.
v. The application of audio-visual aids can be used in teaching in realizing its objectives.
25. According to Robert Gagne – Teaching means arranging conditions of learning that are external to the learner. These conditions need to be constructed in a stage-by-stage, taking the account at each stage of the first acquired capabilities of teh learner, the requirements for retention for these capabilities.
26. Robert M. Gagne proposed a system of classifying different types of learning in terms of the degree of complexity of the mental processes involved. He identified eight basic types, and arranged these in the hierarchy. According to Gagne, the higher orders of learning in this hierarchy build upon the lower levels, requiring progressively greater amounts of previous learning for their success. The lowest four orders tend to focus on the more behavioral aspects of learning, while the highest four focus on the more cognitive aspects.
27. Indoctrination can be termed as the highest order of teaching. In indoctrination, the beliefs and ideas are impressed upon others and can be included in teaching. Teaching can be done without indoctrination but no indoctrination is possible without teaching.
28. Microteaching is a teacher training technique for learning teaching skills. it employs real teaching situation for developing teachcing skills and helps to get deeper knowledge regarding the art of teaching. This Standard technique involves the steps of ‘plan, teach, observe, re-plan, re-teach and re-observe’. Micro-teaching was invented in the mid-1960s at Stanford University by Dwight W. Allen, and has subsequently been used to develop educators in all forms of education.
29. If a child can’t learn the way we teach, we should teach the way they learn.
30. Bloom’s Classification of teaching and instructional objectives fall under following three categories:
i. Cognitive domain (related to development of intellectual capability and is the core learning domain).
It functions at six levels:
ii. Affective domain ( it deals with attitude, motivation, willingness to participate, valuing what is being learned and ultimately incorporating the values of discipline into a way of life) .
It includes the following levels:
iii. Psychomotor domain ( it is mainly concerned with the acquisition of technical skills.).
31. Gagne and Briggs Classification of teaching and instructional objectives :
i. Intellectual skills
ii. Cognitive strategies
iii. Verbal information
iv. Motor skills
32. I hear and I forget, I see and I believe, I do and I understand
33. Bulletin Board
A bulletin board displays messages. It is a surface on which bulletins, news, information and announcements of specific or general interest can be displayed.
Cell phone Operated Mobile Audio Communication and Conferencing system (COMBACCS) was developed by College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (COVAS), Thrissur, Kerala, in a project initiated by Development Partnerships in Higher Education, (DelPHE), under the leadership of Rajiv Gandhi College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (RAGACOVAS), Pondicherry, funded by DFID, UK in 2006. COMBACCS is basically a cell phone/ mobile phone based audio communication tool, through which a group can have direct interaction with an expert at any time and anywhere. The important components include a cell phone, speakers through which the group can hear the resource persons, and a microphone through which the members can interact with the resource persons.
35. According to Thorndike and Hagen , Evaluation of pupil progress is a major aspect of the teacher’s job.
36. 8 M’s of Teaching (as conceptualized by Palma)
i. Milieu : The Learning Environment
ii. Matter : The Content of Learning
iii. Method : The Teaching-Learning Strategy
iv. Material : The Resources of Learning
v. Media : Communication in Teaching and Learning
vi. Motivation : Arousing and Sustaining Interest in Learning
vii. Mastery : The Be-all and End-all of Learning
viii. Measurement : Getting Evidence of Learning
37. A criterion-referenced test is designed to measure a student’s academic performance against some standard or criteria. This standard or criteria is predetermined before students begin the test. The student’s score then shows the progress they have made toward the agreed-upon standard–if they fall short, they must continue to work toward the standard. In elementary and secondary education, criterion-referenced tests are used to evaluate whether students have learned a specific body of knowledge or acquired a specific skill set. An example: When you take your temperature, the accepted healthy standard is 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. If your temperature is higher, you are not meeting the standard for health and are likely ill.
38. A diagnostic test helps identify a student’s learning problems so teachers can provide instruction to remedy those problems. Therefore it is a kind of pre-assessment that allows a teacher to determine students’ individual strengths, weaknesses, knowledge, and skills prior to instruction. It is primarily used to diagnose student difficulties and to guide lesson and curriculum planning.
39. The summative testing is any method of evaluation performed at the end of a unit, course, semester, program or school year that allows a teacher to measure a student’s understanding, typically against standardized criteria. It is used to evaluate student learning, skill acquisition, and academic achievement at the conclusion of a defined instructional period.
40. Difference between Formative and Summative Testing
Formative Tests are quizzes and tests that evaluate how someone is learning material throughout a course.
Summative Tests are quizzes and tests that evaluate how much someone has learned throughout a course.
41. Norm-referenced tests refers to standardized tests that are designed to compare and rank test takers in relation to one another. Norm-referenced tests report whether test takers performed better or worse than a hypothetical average student, which is determined by comparing scores against the performance results of a statistically selected group of test takers, typically of the same age or grade level, who have already taken the exam.
Both terms criterion-referenced and norm-referenced were originally coined by Robert Glaser. Unlike a criterion-reference test, a norm-referenced test indicates whether the test-taker did better or worse than other people who took the test.
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