The business operation is considered to be very complex in a competitive business environment, which is constantly changing with fast technological advancements. An entrepreneur is expected to interact with these environmental forces which require him to be highly competent in different dimensions like intellectual, attitudinal, behavioural, technical, and managerial aspects. Entrepreneurs are therefore permanently challenged to deploy a set of competencies to succeed in their entrepreneurial endeavours. Entrepreneurial competencies are defined as underlying characteristics possessed by a person, which result in new venture creation. These characteristics include generic and specific knowledge, motives, traits, self-images, social roles, and skills that may or may not be known to the person. That is, these characteristics may be even unconscious attributes of an individual. Some of these competencies are innate while others are acquired in the process of learning and training and development.
“Entrepreneurial competencies can be defined as underlying characteristics such as generic and specific knowledge, motives, traits, self-images, social roles, and skills that result in venture birth, survival, and/or growth.”
– Bird (1995)
“Total ability the entrepreneur to perform this role successfully. Several studies have found positive relationship between existences of competencies and venture performance”.
– Man, Lau& Chan
The competencies may be classified into following categories:
1.Personal entrepreneurial competencies
2.Venture initiation and success competencies
a) Enterprise launching competencies
b) Enterprise management competencies
1.Personal Entrepreneurial competencies
It is the personal characteristics of an individual who possess to perform the task effectively and efficiently.Personal entrepreneurial competencies include the following:
The entrepreneur should be able to take actions that go beyond his job requirements and to act faster. He is always ahead of others and able to become a leader in the field of business.He Does things before being asked or compelled by the situation and acts to extend the business into new areas, products or services.
b) Sees and acts on opportunities
An entrepreneur always looks for and takes action on opportunities. He Sees and acts on new business opportunities and Seizes unusual opportunities to obtain financing, equipment, land, work space or assistance.
An entrepreneur is able to make repeated efforts or to take different actions to overcome an obstacle that get in the way of reaching goals. An entrepreneur takes repeated or different actions to overcome an obstacle and Takes action in the face of a significant obstacle.
d) Information Seeking
An entrepreneur is able to take action on how to seek information to help achieve business objectives or clarify business problems.They do personal research on how to provide a product or service.They seek information or ask questions to clarify what is wanted or needed.They personally undertake research and use contacts or information networks to obtain useful information.
e) Concern for High Quality of Work
An entrepreneur acts to do things that meet certain standards of excellence that gives him greater satisfaction. An entrepreneur states a desire to produce or sell a top or better quality product or service. They compare own work or own company’s work favourably to that of others.
f) Commitment to Work Contract
An entrepreneur places the highest priority on getting a job completed.They make a personal sacrifice or take extraordinary effort to complete a job.They accept full responsibility for problems in completing a job for others and express concern for satisfying the customer.
g) Efficiency Orientation
A successful entrepreneur always finds ways to do things faster or with fewer resources or at a lower cost.They look for or finds ways to do things faster or at less cost.An entrepreneur uses information or business tools to improve efficiency. He expresses concern about costs vs. benefits of some improvement, change, or course of action.
An entrepreneur develops and uses logical, step-by-step plans to reach goals.They plan by breaking a large task into subtask and develop plans,then anticipate obstacles and evaluate alternatives.They take a logical and systematic approach to activities.
i) Problem Solving
Entrepreneurs identify new and potentially unique ideas to achieve his goals.They generate new ideas or innovative solutions to solve problems and they take alternative strategies to solve the problems.
Entrepreneur with this competency will have a strong belief in self and own abilities.They express confidence in their own ability to complete a task or meet a challenge.They stick to their own judgment while taking decision.
An entrepreneur confronts problems and issues with others directly.Entrepreneur with this competency vindicate the claim to asset their own rights on others.They demand recognition and disciplines those failing to perform as expected.They asset own competence,reliability or other personal or company’s qualities.They also assert strong confidence in own company’s or organization’s products or service.
Entrepreneurs with this competency successfully pursue others to perform the activities effectively and efficiently.An entrepreneur can persuade or influence others for mobilizing resources, obtaining inputs, organizing productions and selling his products or services.
m) Use of Influence Strategies
An entrepreneur is able to make use of influential people to reach his business goals.Entrepreneurs with this competency influence the environment (Individuals/Institution) for mobilizing resources organizing production and selling goods and services to develop business contacts.
Entrepreneurs with this competency normally monitor or surprise all the activities of the concern to ensure that the work is completed by maintaining good quality.
o) Concern for Employee Welfare
Entrepreneurs with this competency take action to improve the welfare of employees and take positive action in response of employee’s personal concerns.