Section 16. Overcrowding.-
(1) No room in any factory shall be overcrowded to an extent injurious to the health of the workers employed therein.
(2) Without prejudice to the generality of sub-section (1), there shall be in every workroom of a factory in existence on the date of commencement of this Act at least 9.9 cubic metres and of a factory built after the commencement of this Act at least 14.2 cubic metres of space for every worker employed therein, and for the purposes of this sub-section no account shall be taken of any space which is more than 4.2 metres above the level of the floor of the room.
(3) If the Chief Inspector by order in writing so requires, there shall be posted in each workroom of a factory a notice specifying the maximum number of workers who may, in compliance with the Provisions of this section, be employed in the room.
(4) The Chief Inspector may, by order in writing exempt, subject to such conditions, if any, as he may thing fit to impose, any workroom from the provisions of this section, if he is satisfied that compliance therewith in respect of the room is unnecessary in the interest of the health of the workers employed therein.
Section 17. Lighting.-
(1) In every part of a factory where workers are working or passing, there shall be provided and maintained sufficient and suitable lighting, natural or artificial, or both.
(2) In every factory all glazed windows and skylights used for the lighting of the workroom shall be kept clean on both the inner and outer surfaces and, so far as compliance with the provisions of any rules made under sub-section (3) of section 13 will allow, free from obstruction.
(3) In every factory effective provision shall, so far as is practicable, be made for the prevention of-
(a) glare, either directly from a source of light or by reflection from a smooth or polished surface;
(b) the formation of shadows to such an extent as to cause eye-strain or the risk of accident to any worker.
(4) The State Government may prescribe standards of sufficient and suitable lighting for factories or for any class or description of factories or for any manufacturing process.
Section 18. Drinking water.-
(1) In every factory effective arrangements shall be made to provide and maintain at suitable points conveniently situated for all workers employed therein a sufficient supply of wholesome drinking water.
(2) All such points shall be legibly marked “drinking water” in a language understood by a majority of the workers employed in the factory and no such points shall be situated within 1[six metres of any washing place, urinal, latrine, spittoon, open drain carrying sullage or effluent or any other source of contamination unless a shorter distance is approved in writing by the Chief Inspector.
(3) In every factory wherein more than two hundred and fifty workers are ordinarily employed, provisions shall be made for cooling drinking water during hot weather by effective means and for distribution thereof.
(4) In respect of all factories or any class or description of factories the State Government may make rules for securing compliance with the provisions of sub-sections (1), (2) and (3) and for the examination by prescribed authorities of the supply and distribution of drinking water in factories.
Section 19. Latrines and urinals.-
(1) In every factory-
(a) sufficient latrine and urinal accommodation of prescribed types shall be provided conveniently situated and accessible to workers at all times while they are at the factory;
(b) separate enclosed accommodation shall be provided for male and female workers;
(c) such accommodation shall be adequately lighted and ventilated and no latrine or urinal shall, unless specially exempted in writing by the Chief Inspector, communicate with any workroom except through an intervening open space or ventilated passage;
(d) all such accommodation shall be maintained in a clean and sanitary condition at all times;
(e) sweepers shall be employed whose primary duty it would be to keep clean all latrines, urinals and washing places.
(2) In every factory wherein more than two hundred and fifty workers are ordinarily employed-
(a) all latrine and urinal accommodation shall be of prescribed sanitary types;
(b) the floors and internal walls, up to a height of ninety centimeters of the latrines and urinals and the sanitary blocks shall be laid in glazed tiles or otherwise finished to provide a smooth polished impervious surface;
(c) without prejudice to the provisions of clauses (d) and (e) of sub-section (1), the fioors, portions of the walls and blocks so laid or finished and the sanitary pans of latrines and urinals shall be thoroughly washed and cleaned at least once in every seven days with suitable detergents or disinfectants or with both.
(3) The State Government may prescribe the number of latrines and urinals to be provided in any factory in proportion to the number of male and female workers ordinarily employed therein, and provide for such further matters in respect of sanitation in factories, including the obligation of workers in this regard, as it considers necessary in the interest of the health of the workers employed therein.
Section 20. Spittoons.-
(1) In every factory there shall be provided a sufficient number of spittoons in convenient places and they shall be maintained in a clean and hygienic condition.
(2) The State Government may make rules prescribing the type and numbers of spittoons to be provided and their location in any factory and provide for such further matters relating to their maintenance in a clean and hygienic condition.
(3) No person shall spit within the premises of a factory except in the spittoons provided for the purpose and a notice containing this provision and the penalty for its violation shall be prominently displayed at suitable places in the premises.
(4) Whoever spits in contravention of sub-section (3) shall be punishable with fine not exceeding five rupees.