Measures of Money Supply

In India, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) tracks and publishes various measures of the money supply to monitor and manage the economy. The measures of money supply are broadly classified into four categories: M1, M2, M3, and M4. Each measure includes different components and represents varying degrees of liquidity. Here’s an overview of each measure:

1. M1 (Narrow Money)

Components:

i. Currency with the public (notes and coins).

ii. Demand deposits with the banking system (savings and current accounts).

iii. Other deposits with the RBI (primarily deposits from banks and financial institutions).

Liquidity: M1 is the most liquid measure of money supply, as it includes assets that can be quickly converted into cash.

Formula:

M1=C+DD+OD

where

• C is currency with the public
• DD is demand deposits with the banking system
• OD is other deposits with the RBI

2. M2

Components:

i. M1

ii. Savings deposits with post office savings banks.

Liquidity: M2 includes M1 and adds savings deposits, which are relatively liquid but not as liquid as the components of M1.

M2=M1+SDPO

Components:

i. M1

ii. Time deposits with the banking system (fixed deposits, recurring deposits).

Liquidity: M3 is less liquid than M1 and M2 as it includes time deposits that have a fixed term.

Formula:

M3=M1+TD

4. M4

Components:

i. M3

ii. Total deposits with post office savings organizations (excluding National Savings Certificates).

Liquidity: M4 is the least liquid measure of the money supply, including all components of M3 and additional deposits with post office savings organizations.

Formula:

M4=M3+TDPOS

These measures help the RBI assess the amount of money circulating in the economy and implement monetary policy to control inflation, manage interest rates, and ensure economic stability.

Example Calculation:

Suppose you have the following data:

• Currency with the public (C): ₹1,000 billion
• Demand deposits with the banking system (DD): ₹2,000 billion
• Other deposits with the RBI (OD): ₹100 billion
• Savings deposits with post office savings banks (SDPO): ₹300 billion
• Time deposits with the banking system (TD): ₹5,000 billion
• Total deposits with post office savings organizations (TDPOS): ₹400 billion

Calculations

M1:

M1=C+DD+OD

=₹1,000 billion+₹2,000 billion +₹100 billion=₹3,100 billion

M2:

M2=M1+SDPO

=₹3,100 billion+₹300 billion=₹3,400 billion

M3:

M3=M1+TD= ₹3,100 billion+₹5,000 billion=₹8,100 billion

M4:

M4=M3+TDPOS =₹8,100 billion+₹400 billion=₹8,500 billion

Importance of Measures of Money Supply

The measures of money supply—M1, M2, M3, and M4—are crucial for understanding and managing the economy in India. Each measure provides insights into different aspects of liquidity and financial stability. Here’s why they are important:

1. Economic Planning and Policy Formulation

i. Monetary Policy

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) uses these measures to formulate and implement monetary policy. By monitoring the growth of money supply, the RBI can adjust interest rates and other policy tools to control inflation, stimulate economic growth, or manage liquidity.

ii. Inflation Control

Changes in the money supply can influence inflation. For example, a rapid increase in M3 can signal potential inflationary pressures, prompting the RBI to take corrective measures.

2. Economic Stability

i. Liquidity Management

Measures like M1 and M3 help assess the amount of liquid money in the economy. This information is vital for ensuring that there is enough liquidity to meet transactional needs without causing excessive inflation.

ii. Financial Stability

Monitoring M4, which includes all forms of deposits, helps in assessing the overall stability of the financial system. It provides a comprehensive view of all deposits held in the economy, including those with post office savings organizations.

3. Banking Sector Analysis

i. Banking Health

Time deposits (included in M3) are a significant source of funds for banks. By tracking changes in these deposits, analysts can gauge the health and stability of the banking sector.

ii. Credit Availability

Changes in M1 and M2 can indicate trends in credit availability. A growing M2 suggests an increase in savings and deposits, potentially leading to higher lending capacity for banks.

4. Economic Indicators

i. Growth Indicators

The growth rates of M1, M2, M3, and M4 can serve as indicators of economic activity. For instance, a rising M1 might indicate increased consumer spending and economic expansion, while a rising M3 could reflect increased savings and investment.

ii. Market Expectations

Financial markets often monitor money supply measures to gauge future economic conditions and expectations. Sudden changes in these measures can influence market behavior and investor sentiment.

5. Financial Planning and Investment

i. Investment Decisions

Investors use money supply data to make informed decisions. For example, a rapid increase in money supply might lead to higher inflation expectations, impacting investment strategies.

Businesses may use money supply data to anticipate changes in interest rates and economic conditions, aiding in financial planning and decision-making.

6. Historical Comparisons

i. Long-term Trends

Tracking historical data on money supply measures allows economists and policymakers to analyze long-term trends and understand the impact of past monetary policies on the economy.

Summary

Understanding the measures of money supply is essential for:

• Effective monetary policy implementation
• Maintaining economic and financial stability
• Analyzing the health of the banking sector
• Interpreting economic indicators
• Guiding investment and business decisions
• Historical economic analysis

By monitoring these measures, policymakers, economists, and financial analysts can gain valuable insights into the overall economic health and make informed decisions to support sustainable economic growth and stability.

Measures of Money Supply -M1, M2, M3 and M4
Scroll to top
You cannot copy content of this page. The content on this website is NOT for redistribution