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Introduction of Textile Industry
- The textile industry or apparel industry is primarily concerned with the design and production of yarn, cloth, clothing, and their distribution. The modern approach to textile industry categorization, however, involves grouping the manufacturing plants according to their particular operation.
- Wool Finishing
- Dry Processing
- Woven Fabric Finishing
- Knit Fabric Finishing
- Carpet Manufacture
- Stock and Yarn Dyeing and Finishing
- A pattern is a repeating symbol, shape or picture. Textiles are often decorated with pattern to give them meaning and color. Nowadays textile patterns are not only created for stylization but also for collecting and sharing information as in the case of dynamic textile patterns.
- Flowers, animals and stylized geometric designs and figures are usual recurrent themes in various textile patterns.
Materials and Technologies used in Textile industry of India and Of a Developed Country
- Materials used in Textile Industry of Greece
Ancient Greek clothing was made with silk, linen and most often, wool. The production of fabric was a long and tedious process, making ready-made clothing expensive. It was socially accepted that textile making was primarily a women’s responsibility, and the production of high quality textiles was regarded as an accomplishment for women of high status. Once made, the cloth was rarely cut. The seamless rectangles of fabric were draped on the body in various ways with little sewing involved.
Sheep were all-purpose animals in the Greco-Roman world. In ancient Greece and Rome, wool fabric had the added advantage that, unlike linen, it was easy to dye.
Linen was made from the domesticated flax plant which was developed early in the Mediterranean world from the wild flax for its fiber and the oil from its seeds.
Cotton was an imported fabric. Cotton nowadays is grown on a bush with the botanical name Gossipium herbaceum, but there is also a cotton tree, Gossipium arboretum, and quite possibly it was the source of the cotton fiber that the Greeks and Romans knew.
True silk comes from the domesticated mulberry silkworm which extrudes a silk fiber to make its cocoon. In the reign of the emperor Justinian (527–565 C.E.) silkworm eggs were smuggled into the Roman Empire and became the foundation of the Byzantine silk industry. Prior to that development, all silk was imported.
- CLEANING AND DYING
Wool was dyed before spinning. Before the dye would take, however grease and dirt had to be scoured out. Fulling agents like the root of the soapwort was used. After cleaning the fleece was spread out to dry. Wool was also beaten with sticks to remove any trapped dirt. After cleaning and drying wool was now ready for dyeing. The Greeks exploited a number of vegetable and mineral dyes to produce shades of red, blue, yellow and black
Greece wool was spun into yarn with the use of spindle made of a shaft of wood, bone or bronze.
Women did the weaving in ancient Greece. In Greece, the housewife was in charge of weaving cloth for the household. The Principle of weaving is the same as that of darning. Threads known as the weft are taken at right angles over and under another set of threads known as warp.
- The Finished Products
Women who prepared cloth for the home were also responsible for making it up into finished articles. Greeks used needles for sewing but their clothes were made with a minimum of stitching.
Materials and Technology used in Textile Industry of India
India is the second largest producer of fibre in the world and the major fibre produced is cotton. Other fibres produced in India include silk, jute, wool, and man-made fibers. 60% of the Indian textile Industry is cotton based.
Indian textile industry can be divided into several segments, some of which can be listed as below:
- Cotton Textiles
- Silk Textiles
- Woolen Textiles
- Readymade Garments
- Hand-crafted Textiles
- Jute and Coir
Cotton, silk, and wool are the three materials from which textiles are woven. The cotton plant grows in many regions of India, each of which produces a different grade product. Wild silk moths native to the central and northeastern parts of the country (and different from those found in China) are the source of silk. The fleece of mountain goats raised in the cold regions of the country—Kashmir, Ladakh, and the Himalayas—is spun into wool.
The most common colors of red, black, blue, violet, green, and yellow are obtained from plants and minerals native to the subcontinent. Indigo plants are processed and traded in the form of dried cakes that are used to create different shades of blue. Red dye is extracted from alizarin-producing plants and trees, such as the chay or the madder, and yellow from turmeric or saffron (the latter mostly for silks). Black is created by mixing indigo with an acid substance such as tannin. Green and purple can be made by layering yellow or red dyes over blue cloth. The fixative agent, known as a mordant, is a metallic oxide (usually alum and iron) that combines with the dye to bond onto the fiber.
Printing, resist dyeing, and painting
Mordants can be used to create patterns. If the mordant is drawn or stamped with wooden blocks onto the surface of the fabric, the dye adheres only where the substance has been applied and the pattern appears after the cloth has been washed. Resist dying, also known by the Malay term batik, works in the opposite manner, by employing substances such as wax or mud that block the adherence of a dye. After design elements are painted or stamped onto the surface of the cloth, it is immersed in a hot dye bath. The color is revealed on contact with air. Kalamkari, which literally means “pen-worked,” is a multistep process for creating designs. The cloth is first stiffened by being steeped in astringents and buffalo milk and then dried in the sun. The red, black, brown, and violet portions of the designs are outlined with a mordant, and the cloth is placed in a bath of alizarin.
Weaving and embroidery
Patterns can also be created in the process of weaving, as is done most often with silks. The term brocade refers to any type of fabric woven with a raised pattern, though usually it indicates that gold or silver thread has been used. Ikats (another Malay term) are cloths whose warp or weft threads have been bound and resist dyed; both sides of the cloth have the same color intensity. Double ikats are cloths in which both warp and weft threads have been bound and resist dyed. When the weft threads are woven onto the loom, they combine with the warp to reveal a pattern of extraordinary density and complexity. Embroidery, in which a decorative needlework pattern is sewn onto the fabric, is another specialty of India.
Little is known about carpet production before the Mughal era because no carpets survive from before the late sixteenth century, and the terms used in written sources are unclear. However, the earliest carpets woven in India were probably flat- or tapestry-woven. At some point, pile-woven carpets became more popular, some say with the influence of Persian weavers. Cotton and silk are most commonly used for the foundation of the carpet and wool or silk for the pile, pashmina wool for the finest ones.