Training and Development

Methods and Techniques of Training
A wide range of training methods and techniques have been developed over the years by various organizations and training experts. Different training methods are suitable for different categories of personnel in the organization: managerial and non-managerial, technical, administrative, skilled, unskilled, senior, junior and so on. Each organization has to choose those methods and techniques of training which are relevant for its training needs.

1. On-the-job Training
In this method, the trainee is placed on a regular job and taught the skills necessary to perform it. The trainee learns under the guidance and supervision of the superior or an instructor. The trainee learns by observing and handling the job. Therefore it is called learn by doing.
Several methods are used to provide on-the-job training e.g. coaching, job rotation, committee assignments etc. A popular form of on-the-job training is Job Instruction Training (JIT) or step by step learning. It is widely used in the United States to prepare supervisors. It is appropriate for acquisition or improvement of motor skills and routine and repetitive operations. The steps involved in JIT method are:
a) Present Overview
The trainee receives an overview of the job, its purpose and its desired outcome, with a clear focus on the relevance of training.
b) Demonstrate and show the way
The trainer demonstrates the job in order to give the employee a model to copy. The trainer shows a right way to handle the job.
c) Copy and handle the job independently
Next, the employee is permitted to copy the trainer’s way. Demonstrations by the trainer and practice by the trainee are repeated until the trainee masters the right way to handle the job.
d) Follow-up
In this step, trainer checks the trainee’s job frequently after the training programme is over to prevent bad work habits from developing.

JIT method provides immediate feedback, permits quick correction of errors and provides extra practice when required. But it needs skilled trainers and preparation in advance.

2. Off-the-job Training
Off-the-job training, as the name itself suggest, occurs away from workplace. This is often necessary to get people away from the work environment to a place where stress, frustration and bustle of work are eliminated. A training away from work environment enables trainees to study theoretical information or be exposed to new and innovative ideas. But the problem arises when what is learnt is far away from what is happening in workplaces.
The main techniques used in off-the-job training are given below:
a) Vestibule Training
Vestibule training utilizes equipment which closely resemble the actual ones used on the job. However, training takes place away from the work environment. A special area or room is set aside from the main production area and is equipped with furnishings similar to those found in the actual production area. The trainee is then permitted to learn under simulated conditions, without disrupting ongoing operations. a primary advantage of vestibule training is that it relieves the employee from the pressure of having to produce while learning. The emphasis is on learning skills required by the job. Of course, the cost of duplicate facilities and a special trainer is an obvious disadvantage.

b) Apprenticeship Training
In this method, theoretical instruction and practical learning are provided to trainees in training institutes. In India, the Government has established Industrial Training Institutes (it is) for this purpose. Under the Apprenticeship Act, 1962 employers in specified industries are required to train the prescribed number of persons in ‘designated trades’. The aim is to develop all-round craftsmen. Generally, a stipend is paid during the training period. Thus, it is an “earn when you learn” scheme. Apprenticeship training is the oldest method of training. It is particularly suitable for scanning crafts and technical trades wherever job proficiency s the result of a relatively long training period. Draughtsman, machinist, printer, tool marker, pattern designer, mechanic, carpenter, weaver, fitter, jeweller, engraver, electrician etc. are examples of such areas.

c) Classroom Training
Under this method, training is provided in company classroom or in educational institutions. Lectures, case studies, group discussions and audio visual aids are used to explain knowledge and skills to the trainees. Classroom training is suitable for teaching concepts and problem-solving skills. It is also useful for orientations and safety training programmes. Some companies maintain their own training institutes or schools. Special training courses are designed e.g. management course for foreman, computer course or typists, etc. Courses in retraining and upgrading may also be conducted. Small firms depend on outside schools and courses.

d) Internship Training
It is a joint programme of training in which educational institutions and business firms cooperate. Selected candidates carry on regular studies for the prescribed period. They also work in some factory or office to acquire practical knowledge and skills. This method helps to provide a good balance between theory and practice. But it involves a long-time period due to slow process. This method of training is used in professional work, e.g. MBBS, CA, ICWA, Company Secretaries etc.

e) E-Learning
Business firms are increasingly using electronic technology for training. E-learning methods include training through CD-ROM, internet and intranet, satellite broadcasts, virtual classrooms and digital collaboration between trainees. Most firms using e-learning invest in a learning management system. This system provides a single log on pint for all e-learning, opportunities offered through the company.

Training and Development

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