Meaning, Definition, Elements, Process, Types, Techniques and Barriers
Concept & Definitions
Controlling is one of the managerial functions like planning, organizing, directing and staffing. It is an important function because it helps to check the errors and to take the corrective action so that deviation from standers are minimized and stated goals of the organization are achieved in desired manner. Some important definition of controlling is given below.
According to Terry and Franklin
“Controlling is determining; what is being accomplished-that is evaluating performance and, if necessary applying corrective measures so that the performance takes place according to plans.” Henri Fayol “Control of an undertaking consists of seeing that everything is being carried out in accordance with the plan which has been adopted, the orders which have been given, and the principles which have been laid down. Its object is to point out mistakes in order that they may be rectified and prevented from recurring.”
According to EFL Breach
“Control is checking current performance against predetermined standards contained in the plans, with a view to ensure adequate progress and satisfactory performance.”
According to Harold Koontz
“Controlling is the measurement and correction of performance in order to make sure that enterprise objectives and plans devised to attain them are accomplished.”
Elements of Controlling
There are four basic elements of control
(i)The condition\characteristic to be controlled
The first element is the characteristic or condition of the operating system which is to be measured. There is a specific correlation between the characteristic to be controlled and how the system is performing. For example the hours a teacherworks or the gain in knowledge demonstrated by the students on a national examination are examples of characteristics that may be selected for measurement, or control.
(ii)The Sensor The sensor is a means for measuring the characteristics or condition. It is must for the controlling system to include sensor while designing as a method of measurement. For example in Quality Control System this measurement might be performed by a visual inspection of the product.
(iii)The Comparator The comparator, determines the need for corrective measures after having comparison between what is occurring and wha| has been planned. Some variations is expected but if it goes beyond normal parameters then correction needs to be done.
(iv) The Activator The activator is the corrective action taken to return the system to expected output. The actual person, device or method used to direct corrective inputs into the operating system may take a variety or forms. It is required when the things are not happening in congruence to the plan. As long as a plan is performed within allowable limits, corrective action is not required, however, it is an idealistic situation. Usually, controlling is very necessary in every organization and in every department.
The Controlling Process
Control techniques and systems are essential for every process in the organization, which involves the following steps
Steps in Controlling
1. The Establishment of Standards
There is close knit relationship between planning and controlling. So, planning is the yardstick against which controls must be measured. The first step in the process of controlling is to accomplish plans. Plans can be considered as the criterion or the standards against such we compare the actual performance in order to figure out the deviations. The standards can be set in the form of profitability standards, market position standards ,Product leadership standards, employee attitude standards, social responsibility standards and the standards reflecting the relative balance between snort and long range goals.
2.Measurement of Performance
The second step is to measure the performance and there are various management tools to measure performances in relative areas which have been designed by the management scholars. The performance of men or machine can be measured in this step.
2. Comparing Measured Performance to Stated Standards
When managers have taken a measure of organizational performance, their next step in controlling is to compare this measure against the standard established in the first step. A standard can be understood as the level of activity established to serve as a model for evaluating organizational performance.
4.Taking Corrective Action
After actual performance has been measured and compared with established performance standards, the next step in the controlling process is to take corrective action, if necessary. Corrective action is managerial activity aimed at bringing organizational performance upto the level of performance standards. In other words, corrective action focuses on correcting organizational mistakes that hinder organizational performance. It is also necessary for managers to make sure that the standards they are using were properly established and that their measurements of organizational performance are valid and reliable.