Controlling- Meaning, Definition, Elements, Process, Types, Techniques and Barriers

Types of Control

There are mainly three types of control

(i) Feed-forward Control

It is also called pre-control which takes place before the work is performed. Managers using this type of control create policies, procedures and rules aimed at eliminating behaviour that will cause undesirable work results. It can be said that this type of control is aimed at eliminating anticipated problems. In summary, pre-control focuses on eliminating predicted problems.

(ii)Concurrent Control

This type of control is in action when the activity is being performed. It not only relates to employees performance but also to such non-human areas as equipment performance and department performance. It can be in the form of financial and operating mechanism.

(iii) Feedback Control

This type of control is in action when the activity has been completed. This refers to the control that concentrates on the post organisational performance. Managers exercising this type of control attempt to take corrective action by looking at organisational history over a specified time period. This history may involve only one factor, such as inventory levels, or it may involve the relationship among many factors, such as the net income before taxes, sales volume and marketing costs.

Essentials of Effective Control System

It is very important to make the controlling system effective to get increased output and enhance efficiency. Following are the essentials to make controlling effective.

(i)Reflecting organisational needs This means that, all control techniques and systems should reflect the plans they are designed to follow. This is because every plan and every kind of phase of an operation has its unique characteristics.

(ii)  In congruence to individual managers and their responsibilities This means that control must be tailored to the personality, attitudes, and belief systems of individual managers. Control systems infact help individual managers carry out their functions of control. What individual managers can not understand, they will not trust, and what they will not trust, they will not use.

(iii)Capable of pinpointing major deviations It is important for control system to categorically point out the areas where larger focus and urgent attention is required. There are deviations from standards have little meaning and other have a great deal of significance.

(iv)Objectivity in controlling Effective controls needs to objective definite and determinable in a clear and positive way because when controls are subjective, a manager’s personality may influence judgements of performance inaccuracy. Standards set should also be objective so that there is no ambiguity or vagueness while having comparison between the two.

(v)Flexibility in controlling Rigidity may spoil the controlling as various other factors may come between that is why flexibility is the most important feature of controlling. This means that controls should remain workable in the case of

changed plans, unforeseen circumstances, or outsight failures. Flexibility can also be attained by having alternate Contingency Plan for various probable situations.

(vi)Economical controlling This means that controlling system must worth their cost. If we are spending more money on control than what we are going to lose if remains uncontrolled, then it is of no use. Although, this requirement seems to be quite simple to take care but its practice is often complex. This is because a manager may find it difficult to know what is the worth of a particular system or to know what it costs.

(vii) Forward looking Effective control system mu« lead to corrective actions. It is justified only and only if the indicated or experienced deviations from plans are corrected through appropriate planning, organizing, directing and leading. So, to have an effective and efficient controlling system is the ardent need of every organization needs to be well understood that the main aim of controlling is to take the corrective action which, are acceptable to all, not to stop the activity of hamper the organizational effectiveness.

Barriers to Successful Controlling

  • Control activities may unnecessarily create an overemphasis on short-term goals neglecting long term goals.
  • Control activities may frustrate employees by putting a check on their freedom. This type of reaction tends to occur primarily where management exerts too much control.
  • Control activities may result in manipulations and tempering with the facts. It may encourage falsification of reports.
  • Control activities may hamper the creativity of the individuals which ultimately lead to narrowing the perspectives of organisational members.
  • Control activities may not show their effectiveness where proper standards have not been set and faulty evaluation systems are there.
  • Control activities may show their ineffectiveness in an environment where there is fear of discrimination and favourism.
  • It control activities go against the basic fundamental belief system or ideology of human being then also, they won’t be effective.

Controlling- Meaning, Definition, Elements, Process, Types, Techniques and Barriers

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