ICT Glossary – Some Important Terms Related To ICT


1. Ethernet

A networking hardware, communication and cabling standard, originally developed by Xerox Corporation, that can link upto 1,024 nodes in a bus network. A high speed standard using a baseband (single channel) communication technique. Ethernet provides for raw data transfer rate of 10 megabits per second (MBPS), with actual throughput in the range of 2 to 3 megabits per second. Ethernet used carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) techniques to prevent network failures when two devices try to access the network at the same time.

2. EPROM (Erasable programmable read-only memory)

It is a type of memory chip that retains its data when its power supply is switched off. Computer memory that can retrieve stored data after a power supply has been turned off and back on is called non-volatile. It is an array of floating-gate transistors individually programmed by an electronic device that supplies higher voltages than those normally used in digital circuits. EPROMs are easily recognizable by the transparent fused quartz window in the top of the package, through which the silicon chip is visible, and which permits exposure to ultraviolet light during erasing.

3. EDI (Electronic Data   Interchange)

Use  of  computers· and  data  communications    to  transmit   data  electronically between  companies.

4. EDP (Electronic Data   Processing)

Pertaining   to  data processing    equipment    that   is  predominantly    electronic such as an electronic  digital computer.

5. EFT (Electronic Funds   Transfer)

Refers  to a cashless approach   of  paying   for  goods   and  services.     Electronic messages   are  exchanged   between  computers   to adjust  the accounts  of the parties  involved  in a transaction.

6. EPIC (Explicitly Parallel  Instruction   Computing)

A technology   that  is  fast  emerging   as  the  technology   for next-generation    processors.     Three   key  features   used  in this  technology   for  improved   processor   performance   are explicit  parallelism,   predication,  and speculation.

7. EBCDIC (Extended Binary  Coded  Decimal  Interchange   Code)

An  8-bit  coding  system,  developed   by  IBM, which  is used to represent  characters  in many computers.

8. EISA (Extended Industry Standard Architecture)

An extension to the ISA standard having extra address and database connectors compatible with the earlier ISA architecture. Introduced in 1988 by a group of nine major companies in the PC industry being:- AST Research, Compaq, Epson, Hewlett Packard, NEC, Olivetti, Tandy, Wyse, Zenith.

9. Encryption

Encryption is the process of converting data into “ unreadable code” so that prying eyes cannot understand the content. Encryption is necessary as valuable and sensitive information is often sent from one computer to another via a network that technically can be accessed by anybody. It provides a degree of security should the information fall into the wrong hands.

ICT Glossary – Some Important Terms Related To ICT

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