viii. Critical Incident Method
- An appraiser keeps a diary to record critical incidents involving effective and ineffective job behaviours.
- Appraisers pay attention to exceptional behaviours in some performances areas at certain times and in other areas at different times.
- These critical incidents are later used as criteria for evaluating employee’s performance.
- For example, a fire, a sudden breakdown of machinery, a serious accident, etc. may be identified as critical incidents for the working of a factory.
- It is very time consuming and cumbersome for the superior to maintain a written record for each employee during every major
- Critical incidents occur infrequently and therefore, a continuous record of performance might not be available.
The following tables illustrates the behaviour of five workers during machine breakdown.
Informed supervisor immediately.
Became anxious of loss of output.
Tried to repair the machine.
|Was happy to get forced rest.||
Complained of poor maintenance.
ix. Group Appraisal
- In this method, an employee is appraised by a group of appraisers. This group consists of the immediate supervisor of the employees, other supervisors who have close contact with the employee’s work, manager or head of the department and consultants.
- The immediate supervisors enlightens other members about the job characteristics, demands, standards of performance, etc.
- Then the group appraises the performance of the employee, compares the actual performance with standards, find out deviations, discusses the reasons therefore, suggests ways for improvement of performance, prepares an action plan, studies the need for change in the job analysis and standards and recommended changes, if necessary.
- This method eliminates personal bias to large extent, as performance is evaluated by multiple raters.
x. Field Review method
- In this method, a training officer from the human resource department interviews line supervisors to evaluate their respective subordinates.
- The interviewer prepares in advance the questions to be asked.
- By answering these questions a supervisor gives his opinions about the level of performance of his subordinate, the subordinate’s work progress, his strengths and weaknesses, promotion potential, etc.
- The evaluator takes detailed notes of the answer which are then approved by the concerned supervisor. These are then placed in the employee’s personal service file.
- It is time consuming and a skilled and competent interviewer is required.
b) Modern Methods
i. Assessment Centre Method
- An assessment center is a multiple assessment of several individuals performed simultaneously by a group of trained evaluators using a variety of group and individual exercises like role playing, business games and inbasket exercises.
- Experienced managers with proven ability serve as
- Employees are evaluated on job-related characteristics considered important for job
- The evaluators observe and evaluate employees as they perform jobs. Assessments are done generally to determine employee potential for promotion.
- The evaluators prepare a summary report and feedback is administered on a face-to-face basis to the employees who ask for
- Assessment centres are not only a method of appraisal but help to determine training and development needs of employees and provide data for human resource planning.
- The main tools used in assessment centers are:
1. Psychometric Tests
Three types of tests or questinnaires such as aptitude tests, ability test and personality test are employed. These tests are selected keeping in view:
- Measurement of objectives
- Reliablity and validity
- Time required for administration
- Cost involved
Structured interviews are used to probe background, critical incidents, and situational and behavioural event of the employees.
3. Leadership Group Discussion
A small group of employees are given a problem to solve and are instructed to arrive at a group decision within a specified time frame.
4. In-basket Exercise
The in-basket exercise or in-tray represents day to day decision making situation which a manager is likely to face. The in-tray consists of various written messages and communications from customers, suppliers, government authorities, internal departments, seniors management etc. The objective is to assess an employee’s activity level, problem analysis skills, planning and organizing skills, time management, delegation etc. The in-tray materials are given keeping in view the job duties and competencies required of each employee.
5. Business Games/Simulation Exercises
A real life situation such as running a manufacturing operation, stock trading etc. is simulated to the entire group of employees. The complexities varies in these games, the common denominator is the relatively unstructured nature of interactions among the participants and the variety of actions that can be taken by all participants. The interactive nature of the business game provides opportunities to assess dimensions such as strategic planning, teamwork, team skills, leadership and analytical ability.
6. Role playing
It is the method of human interaction which involves realistic behavior in an imaginary or hypothetical situation. Role playing tends to evaluate the human relations processes and personal attitudes and behavior in a particular role such as conflict management, leadership skills, group problem solving, team skills, communication, interpersonal skills etc.
Presentations on vision, organizational issues, case studies etc. are extensively used for assessing employees/participants.
- Assessment center method is suitable for senior or middle management levels.
- It is costly and needs experts to carry out the processes.
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hi I want the notes for HRM for ugc net exam
Please visit Entrance Exam Section on our website. We have uploaded notes and MCQS on HRM for first three units.Soon will be uploading rest of the units.