Factories Act, 1948

Section 11. Cleanliness.-

(1) Every factory shall be kept clean and free from effluvial arising from any drain, privy or other nuisance, and in particular-

(a) accumulation of dirt and refuse shall be removed daily by sweeping or by any other effective method from the floors and benches of workrooms and from staircases and passages and disposed of in a suitable manner;

(b) the floor of every workroom shall be cleaned at least once in every week by washing, using disinfectant where necessary, or by some other effective method;

(c) where a floor is liable to become wet in the course of any manufacturing process to such extent as is capable of being drained, effective means of drainage shall be provided as maintained;

(d) all inside walls and partitions, all ceilings or tops of rooms and all walls, sides and tops of passages and staircases shall-

(i) where they are ‘painted otherwise than with washable water paint or varnished, be repainted or revarnished at least once in every period of five years;

(i-a) where they are painted with washable water paint, be repainted with at least one coat of such paint at least once in every period of three years and washed at least once in every period of six months;

(ii) where they are painted or varnished or where they have smooth impervious surfaces, be cleaned at least one in every period of fourteen months by such methods as may be prescribed;

(iii) in any other case, be kept whitewashed, or colour washed, and the whitewashing or colour washing shall be carried out at least once in every period of fourteen months;

(dd) all doors and window-frames and other wooden or metallic framework and shutters shall be kept painted or varnished and the painting or varnishing shall be carried out at least once in every period of five years;

(e) the dates on which the processes required by clause (d) are carried out shall be entered in the prescribed register.

(2) If, in view of the nature of the operations carried on in a factory or class or description of factories or any part of a factory or class or description of factories, it is not possible for the occupier to comply with all or any of the provisions of sub-section (1), the State Government may by order exempt such factory or class or description of factories or part from any of the provisions of that sub-section and specify alternative methods for keeping the factory in a clean state.

Section 12. Disposal of wastes and effluents.-

(1) Effective arrangements shall be made in every factory for the treatment of wastes and effluents due to the manufacturing process carried on therein, so as to render them innocuous, and for their disposal.

(2) The State Government may make rules prescribing the arrangements to be made under sub-section (1) or requiring that the arrangements made in accordance with sub-section (1) shall be approved by such authority as may be prescribed.

Section 13. Ventilation and temperature.-

(1) Effect and suitable provisions shall be made in every factory for securing and maintaining in every workroom-

(a) adequate ventilation by the circulation of fresh air, and

(b) such a temperature as will secure to workers therein reasonable conditions of comfort and prevent injury to health; and in particular,

(i) walls and roofs shall be of such material and so designed that such temperature shall not be exceeded but kept as low as practicable;

(ii) where the nature of the work carried on in the factories involves, or is likely to involve, the production of excessively high temperature, such adequate measures as are practicable shall be taken to protect the workers therefrom, by separating the process, which produces such temperature from the workroom, by insulating the hot parts or by other effective means.

(2) The State Government may prescribe a standard of adequate ventilation and reasonable temperature for any factory or class or description of factories or parts thereof and direct that proper measuring instruments, at such places and in such position as may be specified, shall be provided and such records, as may be prescribed, shall be maintained.

(3) If it appears to the Chief Inspector that excessively high temperature in any factory can be reduced by the adoption of suitable measures, he may, without prejudice to the rules made under sub-section (2), serve on the occupier, an order in writing specifying the measures which, in his opinion should be adopted, and requiring them to be carried out before a specified date.

Section 14. Dust and fume.-

(1) In every factory in which, by reason of the manufacturing process carried on, there is given off any dust or fume or other impurity of such a nature and to such an extent as is likely to be injurious or offensive to the workers employed therein, or any dust in substantial quantities, effective measures shall be taken to prevent its inhalation and accumulation in any workroom, and if any exhaust appliance is necessary for this purpose, it shall be applied as near as possible to the point of origin of the dust, fume or other impurity, and such point shall be enclosed so far as possible.

(2) In any factory no stationary internal combustion engine shall be operated unless the exhaust is conducted into the open air, and no other internal combustion engine shall be operated in any room unless effective measures have been taken to prevent such accumulation of fumes there from as are likely to be injurious to workers employed in the room.

Section 15. Artificial humidification.-

(1) In respect of all factories in which the humidity of the air is artificially increased, the State Government may make rules,-

(a) prescribing standards of humidification;

(b) regulating the methods used for artificially increasing the humidity of the air;

(c) directing prescribed tests for determining the humidity of the air to be correctly carried out and recorded;

(d) prescribing methods to be adopted for securing adequate ventilation and cooling of the air in the workrooms.

(2) In any factory in which the humidity of the air is artificially increased, the water used for the purpose shall be taken from a public supply, or other source of drinking water, or shall he effectively purified before it is so used.

(3) If it appears to an Inspector that the water used in a factory for increasing humidity which is required to be effectively purified under sub-section (2) is not effectively purified he may serve on the manager of the factory an order in writing, specifying the measures which in his opinion should be adopted, and requiring them to be carried out before specified date.

Factories Act, 1948
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