Tense expresses the time that an action occurs in relation to the moment of speaking. It has three dimensions :
|She, her, he, it
To each Tense there are four different forms.
It denotes Present , Past and Future time in its simplest form.
e.g I dance, I danced, I shall dance.
It denotes that the event is still continuing and not yet completed.
e.g I am playing, I was Playing, I shall be playing.
It denotes that the event is in completed state.
e.g I have played, I had played, I shall have played.
- Perfect Continuous
It shows that an action which was begun sometimes before, is still continued.
e.g. I have been reading, I had been reading, I shall have been reading.
Uses of Tenses
I. Present Tense
1. Simple Present Tense (Present Indefinite)
The simple present tense is the one which we use when an action is happening right now, or when it happens regularly. It is used to denote the following :
i. What is always and necessarily true.
Sun rises in the east.
ii. What is permanent or habitual in life or character.
I brush my teeth everyday.
iii. To express a future event that is part of a fixed programme.
The Eighth standard students go to the ninth in June.
iv. To introduce quotations
Mahatma Gandhi says “ You must be the change you wish to see in the world”.
v. In running commentaries on sports events, simple present is used instead of Present Continuous
The batsman crosses over for a single.
vi. In exclamatory sentences beginning with here and there, to express what is actually taking place in the present.
Here comes the hero !
vii. If type conditional sentences.
If you write that letter, you may get into trouble.
I, we, you, they
Noun + 1st form of verb
He, she, it
Noun + 1st form of verb + s or ed
I work in a bank
He works in a bank.
I, we, you, they
Noun + do not
I do not eat burgers.
He, she, it
Noun + does not
He does not eat burgers.
I, we, you ,they
Do before the subject + first form of verb after the subject
He, she, it
Does before the subject 1st form of verb after the subject
Do you eat?
Does she eat?
2. Present Continuous Tense
Present Continuous tense is used to express an action going on at the time of speaking.
He is writing an article.
If Subject is singular – He, she , it
Add is before the verb and ing to the verb
He is dancing.
Ram is palying guitar.
If Subject is Plural or Singular Second Person– We, they , You
Add are before the verb and ing to the verb.
You are dancing like an idiot.
We are going to play football.
When the subject is first person of the singular number – I
Add am before the verb and ing to the verb
I am eating.
Sentence in this tense is simply formed by adding not after is, am and are.
He is not eating.
I am not dancing.
They are not playing.
Sentence in this tense is formed by adding is, am , are before the subject and verb after the subject.
Is she eating?
Am I dancing?
Are they playing?
3. Present Perfect Tense
This tense connects a competed event with the present time.
I have lived 20 years in Delhi. ( i.e. the person is living there still and began to live there 20 years ago. )
It formed by adding “has” before the verb if the subject is in the singular form.
He has eaten.
Mother has cooked food.
If the subject is plural “have” is used.
I have finished my work.
They have eaten.
The negative sentence is formed by simply adding “not” between “has” or “have” and verb.
She has eaten.
I have not eaten.
They have not yet arrived.
It is formed by putting the subject between “has” or “ have” and verb.
Has the boss arrived?
Have you eaten?
Have you read today’s paper?
Have they eaten?
Present Perfect Continuous
This tense is used for an action which began something in the past and is still continuing.
He has been sleeping for 5 years.
It is formed by adding “have been” or “has been” to the verb according to the number of person of the subject.
Have been when the subject is plural and Has been when the subject is singular or with singular 1st person I.
We have been working on this project for last two years.
I have been eating.
She has been dancing.
Negative sentence is formed by adding “not” between has/have been
She has not been living in Delhi since 2011.
“has” or “ have” is placed before the subject and “been” follows the subject.
Has she been coming here lately?
Have I been eating?