“Intelligence is a state of grasping the truth, involving reason, concerned with action about what is good or bad for human being”.
“Artificial is, what is not real or natural”.
We may term intelligence possessed by human beings as real intelligence because human beings develop this intelligence on their own. Hence artificial intelligence is the intelligence which is created by human beings by applying various scientific and engineering techniques. The term Artificial Intelligence was coined by John McCarthy in 1956.
Different researchers have defined the term based on their own research and understanding of the subject.
“AI is concerned with designing intelligent computer systems which exhibit the characteristics we associate with intelligence in human behavior”
– Barr and Feignenbaum
“AI is the study of how to make computers do things at which, at the moment, people are better”.
– Rich and Knight
“AI is the automation of activities that we associate with human thinking, activities such as decision making, problem solving, and learning”.
“The branch of computer science that is concerned with the automation of intelligent behaviour”
– Luger and Stubblefield
“AI is the part of computer science concerned with designing intelligent computer systems i.e. systems that exhibit characteristics that we associate with intelligence in human behaviour”.
Applications of Artificial Intelligence
- Game Playing
Complex games like checkers, chess, bridge etc. are difficult enough that it takes years for gifted adults to master them. All games require seeing patterns, making plans, searching combinations, judging alternative moves, and learning from experience, all being skills which are involved in many daily tasks. So game playing has become one of the research areas of artificial intelligence. There are machines that can play master level chess. There is AI in them, but they play well against people mainly through brute force computation-looking at hundreds of thousands of positions.
- Speech Recognition
Speech recognition is the ability of a computer system to respond accurately to verbal commands. The user communicates with the application through the appropriate input device i.e. a microphone. The Recognizer converts the analog signal into digital signal for the speech processing. A stream of text is generated after the processing. This source-language text becomes input to the Translation Engine, which converts it to the target language text.
- Expert System
They are knowledge intensive programs that solve problems in a domain that needs a good technical expertise. These knowledge based applications of artificial intelligence have enhanced productivity in business, science, engineering, and military. Expert systems are concerned with the automation of tasks like medical diagnosis, equipment repair, financial planning and computer configuration.
A robot is a mechanical or virtual artificial agent, usually an electromechanical machine that is guided by a computer program or electronic circuitry, and thus a type of an Embedded system. A human can make decision and perform the action but technology is developing so that it can be done by machines.
- E- Commerce
E – Commerce is a very broad and multi-disciplinary field of study and research as it involves Computer Science, Engineering, law, Business and Management, etc. In computer Science, there is a new field of research on the use of artificial intelligence(AI) techniques in E- Commerce. Some applications related to E- commerce could be e-broker and automatic negotiation.
- Theorem Proving
Automated Theorem Proving is an area of study to get computers to prove logical and mathematical statements. To prove Boolean Algebra theorems as a humans we first try to prove Lemma., i.e it tell us whether the Theorem is having feasible solution or not. If the theorem having feasible solution we will try to prove it otherwise discard it., In the same way whether the AI system will react to prove Lemma before trying to attempting to prove a theorem., is the focus of this application area of research.
- Vision Systems
These systems understand, interpret, and comprehend visual input on the computer. For example, A spying aeroplane takes photographs, which are used to figure out spatial information or map of the areas. Police use computer software that can recognize the face of criminal with the stored portrait made by forensic artist.
- Understanding Natural Language
It is a field of AI which deals with the methods of communicating with a computer in one’s own natural language. This will fill the gap between the humans and the machines. So now one need not be computer literate to communicate with it.