3. Reflective Level
Bigge places teaching-learning levels on a continuum which ranges from “thoughtless” to “thoughtful” modes of operation. Memory level is the most “thoughtless” and the reflective level the most “thoughtful”.
The chief characteristics of the reflective level are the learning associated with understanding level plus the sense of purpose and goal. The reflective level is in conformity with democratic, non-authoritarian teacher-student relationships.
Every educational system cherishes this most coveted goal of teaching for promoting reflection. Reflective level teaching is a kind of problem-centered teaching.
i. To make use of the learned facts and acquired understanding or insight for learning reflectively.
ii. To help the learner build up an enlarged store of the tested insight s of generalized character.
iii. To enhance the learners ability to develop and solve problems at their own initiative.
Underlying Psychological Theory and Ideas
Reflective level teaching has its roots in the cognitive field theory of learning. This theory also called goal insight theory, opposed the traditional mechanical and meaningless understanding of the facts.
Motivation in Teaching at reflective level
In reflective level of teaching, the motivation is relatively intrinsic and arises from the fact that both students and the teacher are thoroughly involved in the situation. They are interested not only in framing appropriate questions but also in formulating suitable solutions and getting answers to them.
Role of teacher at Reflective Level
At reflective level of teaching, the teacher does not play a dominant and authoritarian role like in memory or understanding level teaching. Here, instead of telling the facts or generalizations, he has to make the students discover them. He is there to help them in such learning and discovering by raising problems, initiating mutual discussion and interactions, welcoming critical reactions and engaging them in the discovery of the truth of the matter.
Classroom implications at the reflective level
i. In reflective level teaching, classroom atmosphere is free, frank and that of mutual enquiry.
ii. Reflective level teaching resembles the method of scientific enquiry.
iii. In reflective level teaching, it is advisable to permit students to make mistakes.
iv. In reflective level teaching, the atmosphere of the class should be permissive and not restrictive.
v. The teacher should promote open-mindedness which helps in building sutiable class environment for reflective teaching.
vi. Democratic leadership should be provide by the teacher for promoting reflective level teaching.
vii. The teacher should encourage voluntary participation by students, as this is good class climate for reflective level teaching.
i. Teaching at this level is learner centered. The learner himself sets his goal and discover the path of reaching the goal.
ii. It helps in proper development of one’s intellectual powers as it provides better opportunities for utilization of one’s cognitive abilities to acquire information, generalized insight and problem solving skills.
iii. It provides freedom form the rigorous and rigid course materials it grows more from unique relationship between teacher and students than from any different nature of formal course material.
iv. Teaching at this level is problem centered, creatively fostered and discovery oriented helping the children to react, criticize, think and work constructively for the discovery of new facts, generalized insights and application for making this world a place of more comfortable and progressive living.
v. Teaching at this level makes the classroom environment quite democratic, healthy, lively and exciting. This is a free and useful interaction between the teachers and the pupils.
i. In the absence of any formal course material, the students are unable to acquire the systematic and organized knowledge of the subject material pertaining to the school subjects.
ii. Too much freedom and flexibility given to students may drift them from the learning paths and they may arrive at erroneous conclusions and wrong answers to their problems.
iii. Despite the wider claims of its application in the learning of all school at all levels, its field is quite limited to practical sense.
iv. It requires more experienced and efficient teachers who are well acquainted with the process of discovery and problem centered teaching.